Change of work organisation and increasing of the flexibility over the past two decades. To what extent?
I – INTRODUCTION
A - SUMMARY OF EVOLUTION OF WORK ORGANISATION 1. Phase A: traditional organisation 2. Phase B: Taylorism and Fordism 3. Phase C: automatic system B - FRAMEWORK
“Failing ishaving the opportunity to begin again more intelligently” said Henri Ford and he was right. From Taylorism to Fordism, Toyota until today man has ceased to overhaul the organization’s work in order to improve productivity or to improve the vitality of each individual in his work place. But it is difficult to combine all the obligations of a company in a fair and perfect way. In fact, it turned outthat some labour organizations were too concerned with the result of production, neglecting the welfare of employees: insecurity, stress, fatigue. But more importantly, the employee has long been likened to a «machine», without being asked to make ones own reflection in their work. This shows that no human enterprise is doing well without a balanced organization. A - SUMMARY OF EVOLUTION OF WORKORGANISATION 1. Phase A: traditional organisation Phase A is the nineteenth century and reflects a traditional organization or professional work. The machine is universally used as a tool through the skill and craftsmanship of the worker (he has a job) with no control over the pace of work other than his professional conscience. Work is organized by a foreman who is the who is the employee with themost experience.
II. CHALLENGING IN THE ORGANISATION OF WORK
A - WHY? B - WHAT CHANGES?
1. Flexibility 2. Productivity and search for total quality 4. Employee skills 5. Flexible working time
III. THE ORGANISATION OF WORK IN THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF MEMBER STATES
A - PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY MEMBER STATES
2. Phase B: Taylorism and Fordism Phase B, which corresponds to the Taylorism/ Fordism (twentieth century and especially from the 1920s to 1970s). The machinery is specialized for this operation, operated by a worker himself specialist, unable to adjust or maintain. He has no trade. He just got some training in a few days. The organization and pace of work, designed by specialists (engineers, office procedures), are beyond the worker. The workshop leader is no longer acompanion who organizes the work but a leader who enforces the discipline imposed by the planning department.
1. German project 2. French project 3. United Kingdom project
3. Phase C: automatic system Phase C is the automatic system and starts from the year 1970. The work is performed by a set of integrated machines and autonomous. The worker performs more work control andsupervision and production. This is not the speed of the machine which determines the pace of work but the worker’s hours of operation: shift work (in teams) expands to return capital. Since the Industrial Revolution, the constant search for increased productivity this has improved market price, the contractors must ensure control of production by organizing the work procedure. The work was dividedinto simple operations with a repetitive rhythm imposed. It is the generalization of the plant subject to Taylorism. Taylor system, pushed up, especially through the line work, and cleaned of all human rela-
II. CHALLENGING THE ORGANIZATION OF WORK
A - WHY?
tionships, has resulted in the late 1960s has productive effects cons which necessitated the establishment ofnew forms of work organization, like the Toyota, more flexible with more autonomy, flexibility and versatility. B - FRAMEWORK Thus the organization of work has often been amended. And here we are going to see what changes have occurred over the last twenty years. For 20 years, what were the changes in work organization? To what extent the work organization and flexibility in the company have...