The Civil War
The Civil War, also known as the “War Between The States”, was a war that lasted for 4 years (1861–1865). Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy). Led by Jefferson Davis, they fought against the United States (the Union), which were all the free states andfive slave states of the border. The North states were led by Abraham Lincoln. It caused many deaths and wounds.
The Main Causes
While the North was industrialized, the South remained agricultural. Industries on the North-East of the country could not stand the European competition. So they adopted a protectionist policy and began to raise cotton growing. So they made Negro people work moreand under worse conditions. But the Southern democrats did not agree, which disturbed the political balance in all the country.
In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected. His program was based on the limitation of slavery and the granting of free homesteads. It entailed the secession of several Southern states and these formed the Confederate states of America. Then the war began on the12th of April the year after (1861).
It started with the Battle of Fort Sumter, which opened the war. It is a big bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina. After this battle, South Carolina surrendered and rejoined the United States.
Naval battles of the American Civil War were a common occurrence just as they are with many wars. The naval engagements of the American Civil Warthough were different in the sense that they dramatically changed the foundations of naval warfare. Although not invented as a result of the war, the use of ironclads, submarine warfare, and the introduction of newer and more powerful naval artillery ushered in a new era of war at sea.
Because of the fierce resistance of a few initial Confederate forces at Manassas, Virginia, in July 1861, amarch by Union troops under the command of Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell on the Confederate forces there was halted in the First Battle of Bull Run, or First Manassas, whereupon they were forced back to Washington, D.C., by Confederate troops under the command of Generals Joseph E. Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard. It was in this battle that Confederate General Thomas Jackson received the nickname of"Stonewall" because he stood like a stone wall against Union troops. Alarmed at the loss, and in an attempt to prevent more slave states from leaving the Union, the U.S. Congress passed the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution on July 25 of that year, which stated that the war was being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan took command of the Union Army of thePotomac on July 26 (he was briefly general-in-chief of all the Union armies, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck), and the war began in earnest in 1862. Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of 1862 by way of the peninsula between the York River and James River, southeast ofRichmond. Although McClellan's army reached the gates of Richmond in the Peninsula Campaign, Johnston halted his advance at the Battle of Seven Pines, then General Robert E. Lee and top subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced his retreat. The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yetanother victory for the South. McClellan resisted General-in-Chief Halleck's orders to send reinforcements to John Pope's Union Army of Virginia, which made it easier for Lee's Confederates to defeat twice the number of combined enemy troops. When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside. Burnside was soon defeated at the Battle of...