Seisme

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Report Writing

Earthquake and Oil exploration

Written by

HUANG Fujun

The 5 avril

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PLAN
Summary...........................................................................................................................................2 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................2 Theory of seismic wave propagation................................................................................................3 Simulation on Matlab.......................................................................................................................5Conclusions......................................................................................................................................12 Bibliography.....................................................................................................................................12

Summary
The earthquake has often taken place during recent years. At one side, it cause a great damages. But if we capture seismic wave at the htpercentre in time, we are able to deduce key information of the earthquakesuch as speed of propagation so that damages should be avoided to the greatest extent. At the other side, it can be useful in the sense that geologists use seismic wave to research rock structure for oil exploration. So where the necessary of simulating siesmic wave propagation.

Introduction
Earthquake An earthquake is the result of a brutal release of energy in the Earth's crust that createsseismic waves. The seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. At the earth's surface, the manifestation of the earthquakes can be seen as shake and displacement of the ground. Underground, the location where occurs the release of energy is called hypocentre whereas the location on the surface is called epicentre. Thesedisplacement can be represented as following:

Figure 1: Earthquake representation

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The intensity of a seism can be measured by the Richter scale. The lowest earthquakes have a magnitude 3 ( under magnitude 3, it's almost imperceptible) whereas the largest have a mangitude over 9. The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger was a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan on March 2011,and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records began. Earthquakes are usually caused by rupture of geological faults, but also by the events like volcannic activity, nuclear tests. Oil exploration Oil exploration is the research by geologists deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and nature gas. Visible surface features such as oil seeps, natural gas seeps, pockmarks providebasic evidence of hydrocarbon generation. However, most exploration depends on highly sophisticated technology to detect and determine the extent of these deposits using exploration geophysics. Usually, a few of process of depth conversion are applied to create a profile of the substructure before the exploration. Finally, when a prospect has been identified and evaluated and passes the oilcompany's selection criteria, an exploration well is drilled in an attempt to conclusively determine the presence or absence of oil or gas. Oil exploration is a high risk investment and risk assessment is paramount for successful exploration portfolio management.

The detection of the stimulating seismic waves the first time, and then back from the ground or gather information about obtain thegeological Therefore, vibration and earthquake survey.

earthquake consist in in the ground or in the sea at accepting the reflected wave from the sea, in order to the earthquake , and further structure or rock texture. wave compose the basis of

Theory of seismic wave propagation
Vibration A round-trip movement of a particle nearby its equilibrated position is called a vibration. For

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