South africa

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I wanted to write about Africa and more precisely South Africa because it's a country which always has fascinated me. My attraction for South Africa is probably prompted by the fact that it's a wild country, indomitable with its dangers but especially its riches.
In this report I'll give you a synthetic presentation of this country about the positive and negative points then mypersonal point of view.

South Africa is the most southern country of the African continent and is bounded by the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. It's divided into nine provinces:

* Eastern Cape (Bhisho)
* Free State (Bloemfontein)
* Gauteng (Johannesburg)
* KwaZulu-Natal(Pietermaritzburg)
* Limpopo (Polokwane)
* Mpumalanga((Nelspruit)
* Northern Cape(Kimberley)
* North West (Mafikeng)
* Western Cape (Cape town)

The three capitals are:

* Pretoria (executive)
* National flag
National flag
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Bloemfontein (judicial)
* Cape Town (legislative)

Johannesburg is often considered, wrongly, as the capital of South Africa. In reality it's one of the biggest cities and the most populated.
The mostspoken language are Isi-Zulu, Afrikaans (derived from Dutch) and English. South Africa, also called the "Rainbow Nation", achieved the status of a republic in 1961. The current President is Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009).


History: apartheid

Apartheid is a social and political policy of racial segregation and discrimination enforced by white minority governments in SouthAfrica from 1948 to 1994. "Apartheid" is an Afrikaans term which the meaning is similar to "apartness".

The segregation always existed but was only officialised (legislatively) in 1948. These laws had as goal to strengthen the authority of the whites on the economic and social system in South Africa.

In 1950, the government decided that all South Africans be racially classified into one ofthree categories: white, black, or colored (of mixed decent). A fourth category, which appeared later, included Indians and Asians. Classification into these categories was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent. For instance, a white person was defined as in appearance obviously a white person or generally accepted as a white person.'' A person could not be considered white if one ofhis or her parents were non-white. The determination that a person was "obviously white'' would take into account "his habits, education, and speech and deportment and demeanor.'' A black person would be of or accepted as a member of an African tribe or race, and a colored person is one that is a mix of black and white.

In 1951, the governement decided to divide the South Africa into Homelands(as shown on the map). These homelands were independent states to whose each African was assigned according to their ethnic identity. Therefore, each person living in a Homeland needed a passeport and an authorisation to enter in South Africa. Thus, the "whites" could control the flow of "non-whites" people and limit the access to them legally. The blacks were aliens in their own country.

Inaddition of the exclusions there were a lot of violent repression measures.
During Apartheid, tens of thousands individuals died, frequently after gruesome acts of torture. Apartheid definitely ended with the election of Nelson MANDELA in April 1994.


South Africa is defined as the country the least safe of the world by the United Nations because of the number of murders, rapes androbberies.
They considered that the frequency of murders is approximately 50 per day and the rapes at least twice more. It's inadvisable to walk alone in some poor districts of the big cities and in the rest of the city after 4pm. Generally there are fewer problems in the countryside than in the cities. The west coast is more dangerous than the east and Cape Town is relatively safe despite it's...
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