“Sovereignty is an illusion for any state that joins a regional bloc – especially in the age of globalisation”. Discuss
Since the end of World War II in 1945, the world had become smaller every day: the development of new technologies, especially in transportation and in communication has considerably reduced the distance between people. Now, thanks tothe internet, you can follow in live the result of an Australian rugby match from your living room, in London, or, thanks to the development of railway, spend your afternoon walking around Amsterdam, and then go to dinner on the Champs Elysées, in Paris.
Those innovations also helped the emergence of the phenomena of internationalization. But what exactly is that? Robert Cox defined theinternationalizing of the state as “the global process whereby national policies and practices have been adjusted to the exigencies of the world economy of international production”. This notion is de facto closely linked to the notion of globalization that R. Cox explained as the “growing connectedness and interdependence on a world scale. It is multidimensional: connectedness in politics and theorganization of security, in economics and welfare, in culture, in ecology, in values of all kinds”.
In this essay, we will try to see if the processes of joining a regional bloc and of globalisation are responsible for the loss of sovereignty for the state, and so if the State had lost power. But in order to do that, we first need to define what sovereignty is. For Susan Strange, sovereignty isbased on the power of a state. She defined power as “the ability of a person or a group of persons so to affect outcomes that their preferences that their preferences take precedence over the preferences of others”. From that definition, Strange explained that the power is based on 4 structures: the structure of security, the financial structure, the structure of knowledge and the structure ofproductivity, and therefore, the role of the power’s owner is to preserve and to share equally among its population wealth, security, justice and freedom by its politic action.
In this essay, we will see that to what extent regional blocs represents a threat to the state sovereignty, and then, that globalisation represent a higher threat, which can explain why states accept to join a regionalbloc, even if it means losing some sovereignty.
Regional blocs are created in order to integrate national economies into international economies. By promoting free-trade, increasing inter-connectedness between different states and cooperation among each other, members of a regional bloc are aiming for an improvement of their economies and the growth of the size of their national firms, hopefullyinto Transnational Corporations (TNC). However, in the case of the European Union (EU), we need to ad one more reason for the creation of such a bloc: to prevent another war. Indeed, over the last century, France and Germany had fought each other three times, and two of this conflicts turned into world wars that completely destroyed the European continent as much as its economy. Therefore, in 1951the treaty of Paris was signed by the Benelux, Italy, France and Germany, and the European Coal and Steel Community was created. The idea was to bind those 6 countries so bad into the production of steel and coal, that no country can start a war without losing a huge share of its economy. Those special circumstances of creation can explain why the E.U. is so different of other regional blocs.Indeed, according to Andrés Malamud the E.U. and the Southern Common Market (Mercosur), that involved Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay are two different kind of bloc: indeed, unlike the E.U. that have “three of its bodies – the European Parliament, the Court of Justice and the Commission - [which] are of a supranational nature”, the highest authority of Mercosur is the Common Market...