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Difference between subsistence agriculture and plantation agriculture

Subsistence agriculture Plantation agriculture
1 Farm sizes are small only as much as the family can cultivate Farm sizes are large about 400 hectares fro rubber plantation
2 Owned by an individual or family Owned by the state or company in most cases
3 Output is small and almost to feed the family Output islarge and for sale often in foreign markets
4 Farmer use simple tools e.g holes cutlasses and axes Machines are used in most farming operations e.g tractors
5 Labour is provided mainly by the farmer and his family Labour is employed and wages paid
6 Mixed cropping is practised. A farmer may have crops such as cassava plantations, and maize Monoculture is practised only one crop is cultivatede.g banana
7 It requires very little capital Large capital is required to buy machinery and pay workers etc
8 Farmers depend on nature for soil fertility Fertilizers are used to improve on soil quality

Pastoral normadism

Definition: This is a type of cattle rearing where the herder makes with his cattle from place to place in search of pasture. It is practised mainly in the tropicalgrassland regions where natural grass is available. The popular groups involved in pastoral normadism in Africa include the Masai in East Africa especially
In Kenya and the Fulani in Nigeria and Cameroon.

Case study N°: Pastoral normadism in Northern Cameroon

Pastoral Normadism is one of the most important economic in Northern Cameroon. It is pratised mainly in the Chad lowlands and theAdamawa highlands.

Characteristics of the farming

1) The activity is carried out mainly by the Fulani (bororos) who either have fixed grazing land.
2) The rearers generally have low standards of living and are contented to li as their forefathers have done in generations
3) The rearers consider their live stock as wealth and their social position and prestige depends upon the sizeof his herds rather than upon money.
4) The cattle reared is mainly the Zebu com which represents over 95% of the cows.
5) Pastoral farming is carried out in the savanna and sahel zones when rainfall is low and un-reliable . these areas are free from tse-tse fly.

Methods of rearing
The rearers travel long distances every year in search of pastures and water. During the dry season therearers in the absences of pastures and water and towards the North and up the high lands. During this period, the fields or grazing fields of the hill slopes which have been scorched by heat are burnt to enable fresh shoots to come up with the early rains. During the rainy season, they move up the high land sand North wards to escape from the effects of the tse-tse fly and other biting insects.This is called transhumance. When matured the cattle are taken to the markets located mainly in the urban centres of the South e.g Douala, Yaounde, Limbe and Kumba where they are slaughtered and sold as beet.

Factors favouring the activity

1) Climate: The dry tropical climate of North Cameroon characterised by high temperatures of about 28°c, abundant sunshine and an annual rainfall ofabout 1000mm has limited the spread of the tse-tes fly which gives the cattle sleeping sickness. It has also favoured the growth of pasture.
2) Pasture land: Northern Cameroon has en extensive and rich pasture and that covers over 95000km², extending from the Adamawa highlands right up to the Lake Chad. This permits the rearing of large numbers of cows.
3) Skillfull Rearers: The rearers(Fulani) have a long of cattle rearing and are very skillfull movement and are capable of rearing a large number of cattle.
4) Market: The dense population of the urban towns in Cameroon e.g Yaounde, Douala, Bertoua, Garoua, Ngoundere, Maroua and Limbe, provid a ready market for beet.
5) Transport: The extension of the Trans- Cameroon railway from Yaounde to Ngoundere has made it easy for cattle...
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