a) .Trotsky expelled from the Politburo, October 1926
.First collective farms, 1929
.Murder of Kirov, 1st of December 1934
.The show trials, 1930s
.The third five year plan, 1938-1941
(b) The First collective farms:
In the Soviet Union, collectivization was introduced by Joseph Stalin in the late 1920s ,as a way, according to the theoriesof communist leaders, to boost agricultural production through the organization of land and labour into large-scale collective farms. At the same time, Soviet leaders argued that collectivisation would free poor peasants from economic servitude under the Kulaks.
Stalin believed that the goals of collectivization could be achieved voluntarily, but when the new farms failed to attract the hopefulnumber of peasants , the government blamed the oppression of the kulaks and resorted to forceful implementation of the plan, by murder and wholesale deportation of farmers to Siberia. Millions of unfortunates who remained died of starvation, and the centuries-old system of farming was destroyed in one of the most fertile regions in the world for farming, once called "the breadbasket of Europe". Theimmediate effect of forced collectivisation was to reduce grain output and almost halve livestock, thus producing major famines in 1932 and 1933.
In 1932-1933, an estimated 3.1–7 million people, mainly in the Ukraine, died from famine after Stalin forced the peasants into the collectives (Ukrainians call this famine holodomor). Most modern historians believe that this famine was caused by thesudden disruption of production brought on by collective farming policies and mass seizure of property . These policies were implemented by the government of the Soviet Union, of which Ukraine was then a part. Some believe that, due to unreasonably high government quota, farmers often received far less for their labour than they did before collectivization, and some refused to work; others retaliatedby destroying their crops. It was not until 1940 that agricultural production finally surpassed its pre-collectivisation levels.
Since Soviet agriculture is replete with failures, western critics argue that economic systems based on planning and social ownership are unworkable in theory and practice.
Anyway, "failure" is a term which indicates nothing about the magnitude of goals set andresults achieved. For instance, the meat target set in the 1982-1990 Soviet Food Program was an average annual output of 20.25 million tons. The Food Program target was not met, though production in 1990 hit 20 million tons. Hence, the plan failed. However, focussing exclusively on the failure of the meat target overlooks the important facts that in 1990 meat output was up some 30% over that in 1981 (20million vs. 15.2 million tons) and that 1990s per meat consumption (67 kg) was up some 18% over that of 1981.
To sum up, an important progress with respect to the goal of increasing meat production and consumption was obtained through the socialist agricultural system even if the plan officially "failed".
Besides, between 1956 and 1970 the Soviet Union was a net exporter of grain, exporting(net) circa 3.5 million tons per year and from 1970 onward it became an importer. Import of net grain increased from circa 9.88 million tons per year between 1970 and 1974 to 20.52 million in the 1975-1979 period, to 30.88 in 1980-1984 and to 32.1 million tons in the four-year period 1985 1988 (USDA 1989:49). Before 1970, net meat imports of the USSR were small but by 1990 they were approaching thelevels of the United States. These increases in imports of grain and meat were actually not triggered from declining production. Grain output increased from circa 181.6 million tons between 1971 and 1975 to an average 206.9 million in the period 1986-89. Moreover, meat production rose from 14.0 million tons in 1971-75 to 19.2 million tons in 1986-89, a 37% increase. The imports were triggered by...