Since it was created by English, Football is became more than a sport. Indeed, nowadays the apparent sportive show, like said it Pierre Bourdieu, “conceals the actual system of the apparent agents struggling about business issues”. Money and television, between others, have been amongst the most powerful factors in converting Football into show and medium of communication troughutilizations of marketing strategies. The process meets different resistance according to the strength of a state, a lobby or supporters behaviors. However the very special relationship between Business and Football, the latter being made part of globalization. However, is it sill a place for a realistic utopia of educational virtues of football and fan behaviors?
1.Previous history of marketing approach in professional football. 7-35
1.1. Radical evolution in environment. 7
1.1.1. Appearance of professionalism and its evolution 8
1.1.2. A constantly evolving sector. 14
1.2. the influence of external variable 30
1.2.1. Changes in the legislation 30
1.2.2. Importance of hooliganism 36
2. Interests and stakes of a marketing approach infootball 45-64
2.1. the maximization of profits 45
2.1.1. Through communication 46
2.1.2. Through new opportunities 53
2.2. Key factors of success 60
2.2.1. Merchandizing and recruitment 60
2.2.2 The media 69
3 Limits and evolution perspectives of a marketing strategy in football 77-86
3.1 Important incurred risks 77
3.1.1 Financial crises andbankruptcies 77
3.1.2 The dualisation of the market 83
3.2 More and more influential pressure groups 93
3.2.1 Initiatives for more liberalism 93
3.2.2 Necessity of more regulation 100
In developed countries, sport takes a very important place both to a social standing than economic level. Belong the country and considered aggregate(consumption, GDP, employment sport represents between 0, 5 % and 2 % of the value of a state economy (Andreff, Nys on 2005). To an activity which at first sight had no economic consideration, it represents nowadays an important weight. The football, the most popular sport in the world, occupy then a considerable place there.
Marketing and football are two terms which can seemcontradictory considering the fact that originally sport, and by extension football, had no original direct link with the economy. By considering “marketing approach ", we want to say that professional clubs of football are managed in the same way that companies are.
It follows that the implementation of marketing strategies by these clubs can be defined as “The elaboration of amarketing strategy is a process consisting to analyze opportunities existing on the market and to choose a target, a location, action plans and system of control which allow the company to perform its mission and to reach its objectives "(Kotler, Dubois 1994 quoted by Desbordes, Ohl, Tribou on 2001) .
Well, we can consider if this marketing approach is very compatible with the world offootball and the specificities appropriate for any sport.
The objective of this thesis is to understand the evolutions arisen in the football world which allowed the development of marketing, to make the inventory of fixtures of the development of a football marketing logic while understanding its interests and his stakes, and finally to see what are the brakes to its development.The stake of this study is to know how to manage best the football world: Do we have to go to a total liberalism, or to contrary, go back to a strong regulation, or then the most sensible are to combine both?
The investigation field of my study is mainly going to concern European professional clubs of football. I shall consider five countries, those who have the best...