The Apartheid means separateness in Afrikaans. It was a racial segregation set up by National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994. The concept of apartheidarticulated around the political, social, economic and geographical division of the South African territory and its population divided in four hierarchically distinct racial groups:
➢ The Whites:they represent a little more than 21% of the population. They are chiefly the descendants of European immigrants arrived in the country from 1652 among which they distinguish the South Africans (60% ofthis racial group) and English-speaking (40%), chiefly British.
➢ The Blacks or Bantu: they represent about 67% of the South African population but are the least urbanized of racial group (80%live in rural zone). They split between about ten ethnic groups of which the most important are Xhosas and the Zulu.
➢ The Indians: they represent a little less than 3% of the population in 1950.They are the descendants of the coolies recruited in the regions of Madras from 1860 enlisted in the plantations of sugar canes of the Natal.
➢ The coloured (or crossbred): they represent 9% of theSouth African population in 1950. They are existent of interbreeding between the Whites and the Hottentots in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the Malay of the Cape.
By refusing to give tothe Blacks the same rights as in Whites the apartheid transforms differences in discriminations. The laws in force in South Africa condition the daily life of the Blacks considered as inferiors.Facing these laws, ANC (African national Congress, ex-party Bantu), main organization of defence of the Blacks in South Africa and his young leader, Nelson Mandela, answer by not violent campaigns ofprotest (petitions, demonstrations), then civil disobedience. On June 27th, 1955, a Congress of the multiracial people adopts the Charter of the freedom asking for the abrogation of any discriminating...