The effects of team loyalty and selected stadium factors on spectator attendance

Journal of Sport Management. 1995.9. 153-172 © 1995 Human Kinetics Publishers. Inc.

The Effects of Team Loyalty and Selected Stadium Factors on Spectator Attendance
Kirk L. Wakefield and Hugh J.Sloan University of Mississippi
Having loyal fans and a winning team generally results in higher attendance at games. However, university and professional team administrators are beginning torecognize the importance of marketing the stadium experience as more than just the game. Drawing from data collected from spectators at five Southeastern Conference football .stadiums, the effects of teamloyalty, .stadium parking, stadium cleanliness, perceived crowding, food service, and fan behavior control on spectators' desire to stay and attend games at the stadium were investigated. Covahancestructural modeling (e.g., LISREL) was employed to test the causal relationships among the hypothesized relationships. The results support the premise that although team loyalty .strongly affectsattendance, .stadium de.sign and stadium .services also directly influence spectators' desire to stay, and hence, attend games at the stadium. Why do millions of spectators fiock to stadiums to see highschool,

college, and professional teams play football on any given autumn weekend in the United States? Is it just to see the two teams play? From the individual sp)ectator's perspective, the economicimpact of this decision transcends the mere purchase of the game ticket and includes complementary exp>enditures inside (parking, food, drink, and souvenirs) and outside (meals, transportation,shopping, and perhaps lodging) the stadium. The consumer's decision to attend a football game, particularly at the major college or professional level, includes a substantial commitment in money and time.Unlike a comparable expenditure on most tangible products, the purchase of a ticket to see a sporting event includes an intention to stay in the service facility for an extended period of time. Thus,...
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