Master 1 LEA Commerce International
I. GLOBAL WARMING 4
1. Temperature changes 4
2. Expected effects 4
3. Responses to global warming 5
II. THE IMPACT ON GLOBAL ECONOMY 8
1. Stern Report 8
▪ Presentation of theReport 8
▪ The key points 9
2. The most important natural disasters 11
III. WHICH SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL WARMING ? 12
1. Copenhagen conference 2OO9 12
2. 2009 IPCC Report 12
3. Our tips to fight against global warming in our everyday life 13
The climate is changing. The earthis warming up, and there is now overwhelming scientific consensus that it is happening. With global warming on the increase and species and their habitats on the decrease, chances for ecosystems to adapt naturally are diminishing. Many agree that climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet.
Global warming is forcing the world to change the way it does business. A moresustainable global economy is emerging as countries and companies move to combat the challenges posed by climate change. Huge amounts of money are pouring into clean energy projects, carbon trading and environmental and energy hedge funds: the World Bank had calculated that 39 countries had lost five per cent or more of their wealth because of unsustainable forest harvesting.
Society facesmounting physical risks, and businesses face grave financial risks if they fail to adapt to a changing policy climate because of the rapidly changing physical climate.
The challenge we face is nothing short of transforming our economy from a high-carbon model which is putting both our economy and planet at risk to a low-carbon model that can create new markets and a healthier environment.
Thescience and the economics are conclusive: doing nothing about global warming presents a far greater cost than addressing it. Global warming, if not reversed, will consume our national resources and threaten the well-being of future generations, and volatile energy prices and more extreme weather will devastate our economy.
The scale of this undertaking is immense and its potential enormous, buttime is working against us. We need to move quickly on this…
I. GLOBAL WARMING
1. Temperature changes
The most common measure of global warming is the trend in globally averaged temperature near the Earth's surface. This temperature rose by ± 0.18 °C between 1906–2005. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for about 0.002 °C of warming per decade since 1900.According to satellite temperature measurements, temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0.13 and 0.22 °C per decade since 1979. Temperature is believed to have been relatively stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850, with regionally varying fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age.
According to the NASA's Goddard Institute for SpaceStudies and the National Climatic Data Center, 2005 was the warmest year since reliable instrumental measurements became available. But estimates prepared by the World Meteorological Organization and the Climatic Research Unit show 2005 as the second warmest year, behind 1998 when temperatures were unusually warm because of the great storm El Niño during that year. Global temperature is subject toshort-term fluctuations that overlay long term trends and can temporarily mask them. However, the temperatures have been relatively stable from 2002 to 2009
Temperature changes vary over the globe. Since 1979, land temperatures have raised about twice as fast as ocean temperatures (0.25 °C per decade against 0.13 °C per decade Ocean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures...