I. Social and cultural aspects :
a) The martial art
b) The zen culture
c) The japanese schools
d) The japanese family
e) The suicide in Japan
II. System of functioning of the Japanese firms:
III. Perspective for the future:
a) The new viewpoint ofYoung people
b) The strong influence of the samurais
The samurais reigned on Japan during hundred of years. Today, even if they had disappeared, their state of mind and their behaviour continue to exist through Japanese who are very attached to the traditions. So we can ask the question: How this way of life persists in the modern Japanese society?
I.Social and cultural aspects:
a) The martial art:
The Japanese martial arts are closely linked with the traditions and the history of the warrior (bushi or samurais). They distinguished themselves from the martial arts practices in the others Asian country like China, where most often they were developed within village’s clans, temples, trading places or any sort of secret societies.
It’sin the 8th century that the term samurai appeared to design the men of arms. Pronounce then “saburai”, it comes from “saburau”, who means “to serve his master”. The power of the warriors emerged in the 9th century, when they started to organise themselves in groups. The utilisation of the word michi (“way”) testifies of the ethical preoccupations.
From the age of Edo (1603-1868) the martial artsrefined and improved themselves. The appellations are then very varied: hyocho, heicho, bugei, bujustu, geijustu, gei…
All the warriors required to learn obligatory 7 arts: the sabre, the lance, the bow, the equitation, the fight with hands naked, the cannon and the strategy. The dominant art remains the sabre.
To these 7 arts, others disciplines come to be added to establish a total of 18martial arts as the swimming, the art to unsheathe the sabre, the manipulation of the knife etc...
During the modern time, the martial arts, which developed first of all in the direction of individual training, are penetrated then more and more by the militarist spirit which will dominate the company to the Second World War. This is why, during occupation of Japan, they are struck of prohibition byAllies, which see in them one of the supports of the ideology which animated Japanese; it is initially raised for karate. From 1950 and the change of policy caused by the war of Korea, the judo is again authorized then, the other disciplines.
Militarism, after the war, is the subject of severe criticisms from Japanese themselves, and the martial arts take a new departure on the basis of newpacifist orientation. Nevertheless, this past explains why, even today, the image of the martial arts is often associated with the conservatism and the right side. It is certain that they preserved a propensity to privilege a certain worship of the community, which can always be used as relay with various forms of fanaticism. Facing this danger some reacted by redefining the objectives of the budoand by stressing the training of the person in order to enable him to take its distances compared to the dominant social currents.
b) The zen culture :
The samurais were conscious that constantly they could lose the life. It was consequently necessary that the professional warrior finds a philosophical basis to develop a spirituality helping him in his everyday life. In this respect, itcould not have found better instrument than Zen. The school of meditation Zen is not limited to the disciplines of martial art, even if according to the legend, it is closely related to the martial tradition of Shaolin. Zen is a way which leads to the illumination and which is based on the realization of oneself and awakening of the conscience. By the practice of a discipline (which can be...