Words formation

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anti- (=against) auto- (=by oneself) bi(=two, twice) dis(=opposite) ex(=former) ex(=out of) in(=opposite) inter- (=between) im(=opposite) il(=opposite) ir(=opposite) mal(=badly) micro- (=small) mis(=badly) mono- (=one/single) multi- (=many) over(=too much) post(=after) pre(=before) pro(=in favour of) pseudo- (=false) re(=again) semi(=half) sub(=under) super(=above)trans(=across) un(=opposite) under- (=not enough) uni(=one)

anti-war, anti-social, anti-biotic autograph, auto-pilot, autobiography bicycle, bi-monthly, biannual, bilingual, biplane disloyal, disobedient, disappear, disagree, dislike exwife, exstudent, expresident, exflatmate extract, exhale, excommunicate, express inconvenient, inedible, invisible, intolerant, incorrect intermediate, intersectionimpatient, immortal, immature illegal, illegible, illiterate irreplaceable, irreversible, irrelevant malfunction, malnutrition, maltreat microwave, microscopic, micro-computer misunderstand, mistranslate, misinform monorail, monotonous, monologue, monogamous multilingual, multi-national, multi-racial overeat, oversleep, overtired, overdo postwar, postgraduate, post-revolutionary prejudge,preview, prejudice pro-government, pro-revolutionary, pro-nuclear pseudo-scientific, pseudo-nym, pseudo-intellectual retype, reread, replace, rewind semicircular, semi-final, semi-detached subway, submarine, subdivision, sub-editor superman, supernatural transatlantic, transaction, transexual uncomfortable, undo, undress, unload, unlock, untidy underworked, underused, undercooked unilateral, unisex,unicycle

PREFIXES which show an opposite state or process

disinim- (before “p/m”) il- (before “l”) ir- (before “r”) malun-

disagree, dishonest, dislike,… incompentent, inefficiency,… impossible, impatient,…. illegible, illegal, illiterate,… irresistible, irregular, irrelevant,… malfunction, malnutrition, maltreat,… unbelievable, undressed, unlocked,…

A. Verbs suffixes -ise(ize): used to make verbs from adjectives

modern --- modernise general --- generalise

commercial --- commercialise industrial --- industrialise

used to make verbs from adjectives or verbs

note --- notify terror --- terrify

class --- classify clear --- clarify

pure --- purify specific --- specify

B. Noun suffixes -ance/ence: used to make nouns from verbs or adjectivesannoy --- annoyance refer --- reference

assist --- assistance prefer --- preference

obedient --- obedience tolerant --- tolerance

used to make abstract nouns from adjectives or nouns

bore --- boredom star --- stardom

king --- kingdom wise --- wisdom

martyr --- martyrdom free --- freedom

person who does something (-er) or person who receives something (-ee)employ --- employer / employee address --- addresser / addressee

send --- sender *lie --- liar (exception)

things or people who do a particular job, professions

work --- worker play --- player

inspect --- inspector garden --- gardener

act --- actor project --- projector

used for abstract nouns, especially family terms

child --- childhood adult --- adulthood-ian:

mother --- motherhood brother --- brotherhood neighbour --- neighbourhood

people who do a particular job, professions

music --- musician

politics --- politician

electricity --- electrician

used for people who play musical instruments

violin --- violinist

piano --- pianist

cello --- cellist


used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologiesanarchy --- anarchist terror --- terrorist

physics --- physicist Marx --- Marxism

comunist / comunism socialist / socialism

used to make nouns from adjectives

flexible --- flexibility absurd --- absurdity curious --- curiousity

hostil --- hostility real --- reality pure --- purity

anonym --- anonymity generous --- generosity productive --- productivity