• © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. • ISBN: 0-7879-6051-9 • # Pages: 293
and the Science of Instruction
E-Learning and the Science of Instruction combines practical application and solid research to provide guidelines for selecting, designing, and developing elearning courses that build knowledge and skills forworkers learning in corporate, government, and academic settings. This book also includes guidelines on a range of learning issues including the best use of text, visuals, and audio. Each chapter includes examples drawn from Internet and CD-ROM courseware and checklists of “what to look for” in e-learning courses you are reviewing or designing. The book also has “design dilemmas” throughout in orderto further one’s knowledge on e-learning lessons. You will always be able to learn not only the what, but the why, behind effective e-learning.
By: Ruth Colvin Clark & Richard E. Mayer
How to Buy It
• Call Pfeiffer Publishing at 800-274-4434 • www.pfeiffer.com • www.amazon.com
Media Element Guidelines for e-Learning
There are six different media element guidelines to follow when doingeLearning instruction. These guidelines are outlined in the book. They include: 1. The Multimedia Principle: Use words and graphics rather than words alone. 2. The Contiguity Principle: Place corresponding words and graphics near each other 3. The Modality Principle: Present words as audio narration rather than onscreen text. 4. The Redundancy Principle: Presenting words in both text and audionarration can hurt learning. 5. The Coherence Principle: Adding interesting material can hurt learning 6. The Personalization Principle: Use conversational style and virtual coaches. These six different guidelines follow closely to the research that has been done to find the best use of media elementssound, graphics, and text. These guidelines have been used to increase the learning effectiveness ofe-lessons. All of these provide baseline guidelines of broad applicability, and summarize over ten years of research that was conducted by Richard Mayer at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
e-Learning and the Science of Instruction
The Goals and Pitfalls of e-Learning
The book specifies the two types of eLearning goals, which are inform and perform. “How internet learning willshake out, I really do not know. But I am utterly convinced that over the next ten years we will see shifts from in-residence learning to on-line learning.” -Gerhard Casper • Inform: Lessons that communicate information Example: Company history or New product features • Perform-Procedure: Lessons that build procedural skills Example: How to log on or complete a form. • Perform Principle: Lessons thatbuild principle-based skills Example: How to close a sale or How to design a web page.
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Lessons that are primarily built for awareness or to provide information are known as the inform programs, and programs built to help specific skills are known as perform programs. The book specifies three different pitfalls of e-Learning. 1. Failure to Define Job Knowledge and Skills Result:Lessons do not build knowledge and skills that transfer to the job 2. Failure to Accommodate Learning Processes Result: Lessons overload cognitive processes and learning is disrupted. 3. Attrition Result: Learners do not complete their instruction
Effective Practice Principles for e-Learning
“An important instructional implication of the focus on metacognition is that problem solving skillsshould be learned within the context of realistic problem-solving situation.” - Richard Mayer “E-Learning should promote psychological engagement between the learner and the lesson content in ways that help learners to select, integrate, and retrieve new knowledge.” A path that can be used to achieve this learning process is the use of practice exercises. These exercises are often referred to as...