A.The key dates which brought the apartheid to an end In 1990 Frederik de Klerk replaces Botha as head of the National party. Heannounced as priority drafting a new constitution that would allow the peaceful coexistence of all peoples of South Africa.
He takes concrete steps, including concerning theauthorization for the ANC to exercise freely its activities.
On February the 11, 1990, Nelson Mandela is freed after 27 years of imprisonment for "high treason". Then the governmentgranted amnesty to exiles who fought against apartheid.
At the beginning of May, De Klerk and Nelson Mandela meets to negotiate. They start to act against one another and thenrallied.
On 15 October, "seperate amenties act" which defined the rules of the daily lives of people of color is Removed.
In 1991, De Klerk announced the repeal of key apartheidlaws.
All these events are a huge step towards the end of apartheid, which will be completed in 1992 with a referendum to end apartheid and to give blacks the right to power,which was approved with 68% of white people's votes.
In 1994, the ANC won the elections and Nelson Mandela became president.
In 1995, laws on Nationnale Unity andreconciliation are passed, apartheid seems to be far away.
These reforms put an end to apartheid as a political regime, but in practice it is sometimes still present and has left a heavylegacy in south africa.
Indeed apartheid has left deep scars in the South African society. City planning, education, health, still bear the marks of segregation. South Africansmust transform their country still scarred by a true nation. They face serious challenges, including that of a real reconciliation, whose dream of the "Rainbow" nation is the emblem.