The European Union is a political and economic union of 27 member stats. It was established by the treaty of maastricht in 1993 upon the foundations of the pre-existing European Economic Community. NATO: North atlantic treaty organisation is an alliance of 26 countries from north America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goas of the North atlantic treaty signed on 4 april 1949. In accordancewith the treaty, the fundamental rôle of NATO is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means. NATO is playin an increasingly important rôle in crisis management and peacekeeping. G8: International forum for the government of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and USA it was launched by France in 1975 The G8 meets once a year TheEurozone: It refers to a currency union among the EU member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency It has 16 member states and it is the largest economy in the world.The 11 countries that DO NOT use the EURO are : Denmark, Sweden, The UK, Bulgaria, Estonia, Czech, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania. Agricutural subsidy: it's a governmental sum of money paidto farmers and agrobusinesses to supplement their income; manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and infuence the cost and supply of such commodities ( conton, milk, rice, sugar, tobacco, wheat..) The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. Its aim is to provide Farmers whith reasonable standard of living, to provide condumerswith quality food at fair prices and to preverse rural heritage. UAPME= European Association Of Craft and Medium sized Entreprises is the employers organisation representing exclusively crafts, trades and SMEs from the Euand accession countries @ eyropean level. Its an European scial partener englobes 83 member organisations . International trade: is exchange of goods, capital and services acrossinternational boundaries or territories is also a branch of economic, which, together with international finance, forms the larger branch of international economics
The Regulation of IT= 1)At the National Level= controling trade unilaterally by exercising sovereign power 2)At the bilateral Level= agreement for failitating trade between 2 countries 3)At the Regional Level= Exple: NAFTA, EU 4)Atthe global Level= World Trade organisation Risks in IT= 1) political risks= wars, terrorism 2) commercial risks= insolvency !! (selling goods , collecting money later) 3) Financial risks= Exchange risk (different exchange trade), interest risk (by taking a loan) Free Trade: is a market model in whih trade in goods and services between or within countries flow unhindered by government-imposedrestrictions. NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement Signed in 1994 between Canada, The USA and Mexico. Creating the largest free trade area and richest market in the world It introduced a certain number of arrangements aimed @ meeting the concerns of certain industries Its the most comprehensive regional trade block agreement ever negotiated by the USA. MERCOSUR: Mercado Commun Del America del SurSigned between Brazil, Argentina, Urugway, Paragway in the early 1990's Its a counterbalance to the north American geopolitical influence. MERCOSUR is a sphere to influence and a counter balance to north america geopolical clout It has become the 3rd largest market in the world after NAFTA and the EU The WTO= the world trade Organization: was created in 1995 to supervise and liberalizeinternational trade. Its goal: to improve the welfare of its member countries by lowering trade barriers and providing a platform for negotiations of trade. The GATT(1947)=General agreement on tariffs and trade It's responsible for negotiating and implementing new trade agreements and it is in charge of policing member countries adherence to all the WTO agreements The Doha Developmeny Agenda: – A round of...
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