TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE FAVOURABLE CONTEXT TO THE EMERGENCE OF NEW FUELS 3
ORIGIN AND RESOURCES OF BIOFUELS 4
A) BIOMASS 4
B) SEVERAL TYPES OF BIOFUELS 4
BIOFUELS IN THE WORLD 6
A) ETHANOL 6
B) THE EMHV 6
ASSESSMENTS OF THESE FIELDS IN FRANCE 7
A) ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT 7
B) ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 8
BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 INTRODUCTION
Biofuels are perceived in many countries, like one of the means of fighting against the climatic change, but also like a realistic solution to the problem of dependence on oil resources.
In Europe, ambitious objectives of incorporation have been implemented (5,75 % in 2010 and 8% in 2015) to encourage the Member States to develop these fields significantly.
Nowadays, the transport sector and the environmental changes lead many countries to develop several kinds of biofuels. Theses different fuels are manufactured from biomass which is contained in many resources: vegetal, vegetal waste, algae, fats… For example in France, biofuels are economic and ecologic facts.
However, many questions are increasingly raised about the roles of biofuels in international issues like:
- carbon emissions levels
- the “food and fuel” debate
- deforestation and soil erosion
- impact and water resources… The favourable context to the emergence of new fuels
Several reasons explain the development of biofuel research
• The rising oil prices (mainly caused by instability in the Middle East),
• The concerns about a potential peak of oil prices
• The greenhouse gas emissions (causing global warming and climate change)
• The rural development interests
Indeed, the exhaustion of the oil reserves that has increased since a score of years leads governments to set up policies supporting alternative energy resources. And biofuels seem to be the only “renewable” alternative to oil fuels, especially in the transport sector, where biofuels can be mixed with gasoline or diesel.