Author of The End of History and the Lost Mon
Fukuyama's criticism of
Iraq war put him at odds with neoconservative friends both within and outside the Bush administration. Here
he explains how, in its decision to invade Iraq,
the Bush administrationfailed in its steward ship of American foreign policy. First, the ad ministration wrongly made preventive war the central tenet of its foreign policy. In addition, it badly misjudged the global reaction to its exercise of "benevolent hegemony." And final ly, it failed to appreciate the difficulties in volved in large-scale social engineering, grossly underestimating the difficulties involved inestab lishing a successful democratic government in
Bush administration's critics that it had a
conservative agenda that dictated its foreign policy during the president's first term. Provid ing a fascinating history of the varied strands of neoconservative thought since the 1930s,
Fukuyama argues that the movement's legacy is acomplex one that can be interpreted quite differently than it w a s after the end of the Cold War. A n a l y z i n g the Bush administration's mis calculations in responding to the post-Septem ber 1 1 challenge, Fukuyama proposes a new
approach to American foreign policy through which such mistakes might be turned a r o u n d one in which the positive aspects of the neoconservative legacyare joined with a more realistic view of the way American power can be used around the w o r l d .
Fukuyama i s Bernard L. Schwartz
Professor of International Political Economy and director of the International Development Program at the School of Advanced Interna
tional Studies, Johns H o p k i n s University. He has written widely on political and economic development, and h is previous books include The End of History and the Last Man, a best Times
seller and the winner of the Los Angeles Book P r i z e .
CASTLE LECTURE SERIES
Printed in the U.S.A.
"Francis Fukuyama here gives the most lucid and knowledgeable account of the neoconservative vision of America's place and role in world affairs, and where it has overreached disastrously. He argues effectivelyfor an American foreign policy more aware of the limits of American power, less dependent on the military, and more respectful of the interests and opinions of other countries and emerging international norms and institutions." NATHAN GLAZER Harvard University
YALE U N I V E R Ç I T
N e w Haven and London
ISBN 0-300-1 1 399-4
5 2 500
The Castle Lectures in Ethics, Politics,and Economics
America at the Crossroads
D E M O C R A C Y , P O W E R , A N D T H E N E O C O N S E R V A T I V E
L E G A C Y
YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS NEW HAVEN AND LONDON
Copyright © 2006 by Francis Fukuyama.
All rights reserved.
T h i s book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond that copying permitted bySections 107 and 108 of the U . S . Copyright L a w and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers.
Printed in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fukuyama, Francis. America at the crossroads : democracy, power, and the neoconservative legacy / Francis Fukuyama. p. c m . — ( T h e Castle lectures inethics, politics, and economics) Includes bibliographical references and index. I S B N - 1 3 : 9 7 8 - 0 - 3 0 0 - 1 1 3 9 9 - 0 (alk. paper) I S B N - 1 0 : 0 - 3 0 0 - 1 1 3 9 9 - 4 ( lk- paper) 1. United States—Foreign relations—20013. United States—Military policy. States. 6. Democracy. 2. Conservatism—United States. 5. Hegemony—United I. Title. II. Series.
4. Iraq War, 2 0 0 3 -
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