The Theorical foundations of International trade
Foreign trade : it’s the exchange of capital, goods, and services across borders or territories
Foreign exchange : it’s the exchange of money in one currency for another.
Customs duties : it’s a kind of indirect tax which is collected by a local agency responsible on goods of international trade.
Tariffs : it’s a taxlevied on imported or exported goods.
Quotas : The share or proportion assigned to each in a division.
Tariff barriers :
Non tariff barriers NTB’s are trade barriers that restrict imports but are not in the usual form of a tariff (anti-dumping measures, countervailing duties “droits compensateurs”) whereas covert tariff barriers :
Environmental standards : a policy guideline that regulatesthe effect of human activity upon the environment.
Safety standards : Standards designed to ensure the safety of products activities or processes.
Health standards : It’s a list of standards under domains to ensure the safety of people health.
Counter retaliation :
Countervailing duties (CVDs): Duties imposed under WTO Rules to neutralize the negative effects ofsubsidies.
I) The multilateral, bilateral and universal issues in international trade
Multilateralism : Term in international relations that refers to multiple countries working in concert on a given issue.
Globalisation : Phenomena of an ongoing “en cours” process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated trough a globe-spanning “couvrant-globale”network of communication and trade.
WTO : World trade organization – International organization designed by its founders to supervise and liberalize international trade.
The Uruguay Round :It was the 8th round of multilateralism trade negotations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on tariffs and Trade (GATT), spanning “couvrant” from 1986-1994 and embracing 110 countriesas “contracting parties”.
Round of talks “cycle de negotiations” (trade negotiations):
Net exports as component of GDP :
GDP per capita : An approximation of the value of goods produced per person in the country, equal to the country's GDP divided by the total number of people in the country.
Economic development differential :
Primary sector products : it involves “implique”changing natural resources into primary products.
Secondary sector products : It includes those sectors tant create a finished or usable product such as manufacturing.
Tertiary sector products : It includes the production of services instead of just an end product.
Developing countries : Term generally used to describe nations with a low level of material well being and recently classifiedaccording to the request by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as below US$11,905.
Emerging countries : Nations with social or business activity in the process of rapid growth and industrialization arising from digitalization, deregulation, and open-standards.
Developed countries : Term generally used to describe countries that have a high level of development according to the request byGross Domestic product per capita, a high level of industrialization dominated by the tertiary and quaternary sectors of industry, and a high human development index.
Fair trade : it's an organized social movement and market-based approach that aims to help producers in developing countries and sustainability advocating the payment of a higher price to producers as well as social andenvironmental standards.
Unfair trade refers to acts of legislation, illegal techniques or positions giving a competitor an advantage over others like violation of antitrust law to force others out of the market, or trademark infringement ''contrefaçon de marque'', misappropriation ''appropriation illicite'' of trade secrets, trade libel ''diffamation du commerce'', spreading ''diffusion'' of false...
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