Les systèmes anti collision pour aéronefs

Pages: 39 (9573 mots) Publié le: 23 mars 2011
WP-6.1– ACAS brochure ACASA/WP6.1/015

May 2000 Version 2.0

NOTE

This document is designed for the training of people involved in the implementation and the use of the Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS). However, it is not, per se, designed for the complete training of controllers or pilots. The principal and essential technical and operational features of ACAS are introduced.For a deeper knowledge, the reader is advised to refer to ICAO and RTCA documentation listed in the bibliography section.

John Law ACAS Programme Manager

ACAS Programme

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WP-6.1– ACAS brochure ACASA/WP6.1/015

May 2000 Version 2.0

This brochure has been translated and adapted, in the framework of the European Project: ACASA (ACAS Analysis), from a document produced by CENA(Centre d’Etudes de la Navigation Aérienne - France), entitled “ Livret d’information ACAS ”.

CENA and EUROCONTROL have contributed to the development of this document.

ACAS Programme

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WP-6.1– ACAS brochure ACASA/WP6.1/015

May 2000 Version 2.0

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I : GENERAL INTRODUCTION Þ Historical background Þ ACAS principles Þ Types of ACAS Þ TCAS II developmentÞ Towards a world-wide mandatory carriage CHAPTER II : TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF TCAS II Þ System components Þ Cockpit presentation CHAPTER III : ACAS IN THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT Þ Regulations Þ Operational use Þ Training Þ Examples of conflicts solved by TCAS CHAPTER IV : TARGET SURVEILLANCE Þ The surveillance function Þ Interference limiting CHAPTER V : THE COLLISION AVOIDANCE LOGIC ÞPrinciple Þ CAS functions CONCLUSION
Bibliography Abbreviations

4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 10 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 17 21

ACAS Programme

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WP-6.1– ACAS brochure ACASA/WP6.1/015

May 2000 Version 2.0

General introduction
Historical background
Over the years, air traffic has continued to increase. The developments of modern air traffic control systems have made it possible to copewith this increase, whilst maintaining the necessary levels of flight safety. However, the risk of airborne collision remains. That is why, as early as the fifties, the concept and initial development of an airborne collision avoidance system, acting as a last resort, was being considered. A series of mid air collisions occurred in the United States, initiating the further stages of the system’sdevelopment. · In 1956, the collision between two airliners, over the Grand Canyon, spurred both the airlines and the aviation authorities to continue the system development studies. · In 1978, the collision between a light aircraft and an airliner over San Diego led the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) to initiate, three years later, the development of TCAS (Traffic alert and Collision AvoidanceSystem). · Finally, in 1986, the collision between a DC-9 and a private aircraft, at Cerritos, required the FAA, based on a Congressional mandate, to issue, in 1989, new aviation legislation, which required some categories of American and foreign aircraft to be equipped with TCAS for flight operations in US airspace. In parallel to the development of TCAS equipment, ICAO (International CivilAviation Organisation) has developed, since the beginning of the eighties, standards for Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS). The main feature of ACAS, which was first proposed by Dr John S. Morell in 1955, is that it functions according to time criteria and not distance. From several successive replies, ACAS calculates a time to reach the CPA (Closest Point of Approach) with the intruder, bydividing the range by the closure rate. This time value is the main parameter for issuing alerts and the type of alert depends on its value. If the aircraft transmit their altitude, ACAS also computes the time to reach coaltitude. ACAS can issue two types of alert: · Traffic Advisories (TAs), which aim at helping the pilot in the visual search for the intruder aircraft, and by alerting him to be...
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