SYNTHETIC CULTURE PROFILES
Core value: individual freedom Core distinction: me/others
Adapted from Hofstede/Pederson/Hofstede "Exploring Culture"
Core value: group harmony Core distinction: ingroup/outgroup
Seven key elements: Seven key elements: 1. Honest people speak their mind. 1. Members of one's ingroup (organization, extendedfamily) are 2. Low-context communication (explicit concepts) very close, whereas other, outgroup people are very distant. is preferred. 2. Harmony should always be maintained and direct con3. The task takes precedence over relationships. frontations avoided. 4. Laws and rights are the same for all. 3. Relationships are more important than the task at hand. Much 5. Trespassing leads to guilt and loss ofselftime is spent on greeting and farewell rituals. respect. 4. Laws, rights, and opinions differ by group. 6. Everyone is supposed to have a personal opinion 5. Trespassing leads to shame and loss of face for the entire on any topic. ingroup 7. The relationship between employer and 6. The relationship between employer and employee is employee or between parent and child is a contract perceived inmoral terms, like a family link. based on mutual advantage. 7. Spoken communication uses imprecise style. Discreet non verbal clues, such as tone and pauses, are crucial. The speaker Words with a positive connotation: adapts to the listener. self, friendship, "do your own thing" contract, litigation, self-interest, self-respect, self-actualising, Words with a positive connotation: individual,dignity, I, me, pleasure, adventure, guilt, harmony, face, obligation, sacrifice, family (in a symbolic sense), privacy. tradition, decency, honour, duty, loyalty, shame, Words with-a negative connotation: harmony, face, obligation, sacrifice, family (in a symbolic sense), tradition, decency, honour, duty, loyalty, shame, Language: Are verbal and self-centred, using and me a lot. Nonverbal: Make eyecontact freely When in groups, they are likely to stand out visually Negative stereotypes: Are defensive, tend to be loners, run from one appointment to the next. Evaluation: Use other people and measure the importance of others in terms of how useful they are. Stress: Are supposed to continually test their own ability This can be stressful. They tend to take on stress physically. Gender roles:Females might as easily hold power as males, especially in urban and modernized areas. Gender roles are not rigidly defined; each gender takes on the role of the other when necessary to serve her or his self-interests in public and/or private activities. Role of women: Women are supposed to be adventurous. Role of men: Men are supposed to be adventurous. Words with-a negative connotation: self,friendship, "do your own thing" contract, litigation, self-interest, self-respect, self-actualising, individual, dignity, I, me, pleasure, adventure, guilt, privacy. Language: Can be very silent, especially when alone among outgroup people. Use "we" instead of "I". Silences may occur in conversations without causing tension. Nonverbal: Physically very close with ingroups but reserved with outgroups.Negative stereotypes: Are never on their own. Are not forthright. Evaluation: They go a long way for their friends and expect others to do the same in return. Stress: They internalise stress. They will suffer if they can't avoid deviant behaviour or if they are forced to be alone. If provoked they can be collectively violent to outgroups. Gender roles: Well defined with males and females weavingthe social fabric each in his or her own sphere. Couples are part of wider family groups. Role of women: Women tend to move into their partner's family when they marry. They tend to both care for the home and provide food and income. Role of men: Men tend to spend much of their time in the social sphere of their work.
High Power Distance
Core value: respect for status...
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