Rapport entre l'europe et l'amerique

9002 mots 37 pages
Voluntas (2006) 17:247–263 DOI 10.1007/s11266-006-9016-2 ORIGINAL PAPER

Social Enterprise in the United States and Europe: Understanding and Learning from the Differences
Janelle A. Kerlin

Published online: 28 September 2006 C International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2006

Abstract Since the 1980s both the United States and Europe have experienced a simultaneous expansion in social enterprise. However, little has been written comparing and contrasting American and European conceptions of social enterprise resulting in difficulty communicating on the topic and missed opportunities to learn and build on foreign experience. To address this need, this paper compares and contrasts American and European social enterprise through an extensive review of literature from the two regions and discussions with social enterprise researchers on both sides of the Atlantic. It outlines the definitions of social enterprise used by American and European academics and practitioners, identifies historical factors promoting and shaping different conceptions of social enterprise, and highlights the differing institutional and legal environments in which it operates. It concludes by identifying what Americans and Europeans can learn from each others’ experience with social enterprise. Keywords Social enterprise . Third sector . United States . Europe

Introduction For over two decades, social enterprise movements in the United States and Europe have taken on growing importance. Broadly defined as the use of nongovernmental, market-based approaches to address social issues, social enterprise has become an increasingly popular means of funding and supplying social initiatives in the two regions. Yet while the trend and its ultimate objectives are similar, distinct differences remain in the conceptualization

An earlier version of this paper appeared as part of the ARNOVA Occasional Paper Series as “Social Enterprise in the United States and

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