Terroir impact on polyphenols
Table of contents Introduction 1 I) Polyphenols 2 A) Stage of grapes formation 2 B) Role of polyphenol 2 C) Different class of polyphenols 2 D) Phenolic biosynthesis 3 E) Hormones acting in relation with polyphenol 4 II) Climate 5 A) Sunlight 5 B) Sunlight and temperature 5 C) Temperature 6 1) Effect of temperature on stage of berry 6 2) Day/night temperature effect 6 3) Physiological impact of the temperature 7 D) Cultural practices 7 III) Interaction between soil and polyphenol 9 A) Water availability 9 1) Direct response 9 2) Indirect response 10 B) Nitrogen and potassium interaction with polyphenol content 11 1) Impact on polyphenol. 11 2) Physiologic effect 11 C) Cultural practices 12 IV) Wine making influence 13 A) Interest of the maceration 13 B) Maceration type 13 1) Maceration 13 2) Short maceration 14 3) Extended maceration 14 4) Cold maceration 14 5) “Saignée” 15 6) Impact of different other methods 15 C) Impact of the SO2 15 D) Micro-oxygenation 16 E) Malolactic fermentation and ageing 16 CONCLUSION 17 REFERENCES 18
Terroir is a complex concept that requires a multidisciplinary approach.
Some authors have been able to develop relatively simple theories on the definition of terroir. In some cases, it is reduced to the only relationship between soil-climate, vineyards and wine. In contrast, a number of geographers argue the theory that the origin of terroir is purely human and social. Nowadays all agree that terroir can be defined as a unique and delineated geographical area in which a human community built a collective knowledge based on a system of interaction between biological and physical environment, and a set of human factors. The terroir also involves specific landscape features and values of the territory (Fanet, 2007).
Terroir is thought of as a product with a character linked to its place of production, and