Impact of Real World Drive Cycles on PHEV Battery Requirements
Mohammed Fellah, Gurhari Singh, Aymeric Rousseau, Sylvain Pagerit
Argonne National Laboratory
Ed Nam, Anthony Neam, George Hoffman
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Copyright © 2007 SAE International
PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES (PHEVS) HAVE THE ABILITY TO SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCEPETROLEUM CONSUMPTIONS. ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY (ANL), WORKING WITH THE FREEDOMCAR AND FUELS PARTNERSHIP, PARTICIPATED IN THE DEFINITION OF THE BATTERY REQUIREMENTS FOR PHEVS. PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE DEMONSTRATED THE IMPACT OF VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS VEHICLE CLASS, MASS OR ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES. HOWEVER, OUTSTANDING QUESTIONS REMAIN REGARDING THE IMPACT OF DRIVE CYCLES ON THE REQUIREMENTS.IN THIS PAPER, WE WILL EVALUATE THE CONSEQUENCES OF SIZING THE ELECTRICAL MACHINE AND THE BATTERY TO FOLLOW BOTH STANDARD DRIVE CYCLES SUCH AS THE URBAN DYNAMOMETER DRIVING SCHEDULE (UDDS), AS WELL AS REAL WORLD DRIVE CYCLES IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) MODE. THE REQUIREMENTS WILL BE DEFINED FOR SEVERAL DRIVING CONDITIONS (I.E., URBAN, HIGHWAY…) AS WELL AS DRIVING BEHAVIOR (I.E., SMOOTH,AGGRESSIVE).
PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES HAVE DEMONSTRATED GREAT POTENTIAL IN PETROLEUM DISPLACEMENT. SINCE THE BENEFITS OF THE TECHNOLOGY HEAVILY RELY ON THE BATTERY , THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW GENERATIONS OF ADVANCED BATTERIES WITH LONG LIFE AND LOW COST IS CRITICAL. TO SATISFY THIS GOAL, THE U.S DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, AS PART OF THE FREEDOMCAR AND FUELS PARTNERSHIP, IS FUNDING THEDEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES.
This development is guided by a set of requirements [2, 3, 4, 5]. The initial values were defined with PSAT for two different timeframes (short term and long term) and two vehicle classes (midsize car and small SUV). However, only a single set of assumptions were considered: one powertrain configuration (pre-transmission), one set of componenttechnology (current time frame) and one drive cycle (the UDDS).
Previous studies focused on the impact of other standard cycles  or powertrain configuration  demonstrated the need to further evaluate driving behaviors. Working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this paper addresses the impact of real world drive cycles on PHEV battery requirements from both a power andenergy point of view.
THE VEHICLE CLASS USED REPRESENTS A MIDSIZE SEDAN. THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS ARE DEFINED IN TABLE 1.
Table 1: Main Vehicle Characteristics
|Glider mass (kg) |990 |
|Frontal area (m2) |2.2 |
|Coefficient of drag |0.29|
|Wheel radius (m) |0.317 |
|Tire rolling resistance |0.008 |
The vehicle configuration selected is an input split with a fixed ratio between the electric machine and the transmission, similar to the Camry HEV.
TO QUICKLY SIZE THE COMPONENT MODELS OF THE POWERTRAIN, AN AUTOMATEDSIZING PROCESS WAS DEVELOPED. A FLOW CHART ILLUSTRATING THE SIZING PROCESS LOGIC IS SHOWN IN FIGURE 1. ALTHOUGH ENGINE POWER IS THE ONLY VARIABLE FOR CONVENTIONAL VEHICLES, PHEVS HAVE TWO VARIABLES: ENGINE POWER AND ELECTRIC POWER. IN OUR CASE, THE ENGINE IS SIZED TO MEET THE GRADEABILITY REQUIREMENTS.
To meet the All Electric Range (AER) requirements, the battery power is sized to follow eachspecific driving cycle while in all-electric mode. We also ensure that the vehicle can capture the entire energy from regenerative braking during decelerations. Finally, battery energy is sized to achieve the required AER of the vehicle for the daily driving or trip considered. The AER is defined as the distance the vehicle can travel on the specific cycle until the first engine start. Note...
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