Breton André (1896-1966), was a French writer and poet and above all the pivotal figure of the Surrealist movement which was born after the First World War. He was one of the most important literary figures of the twentieth century.
The principles of the Surrealist movement launched by Apollinaire and Lautrémont, among others, are exposed in the ´Manifestoes of Surrealism´ published in 1969. These manifestoes are the two main theoretical texts of Breton André.
According to the online encyclopedia Encarta (2009), a manifesto is ‘a public written declaration of principles, policies, and objectives, especially one issued by a political movement or candidate’. By definition and according to the definition given by Breton himself in his first manifesto (1924; 26), Surrealism is:
‘Dictionary: Surrealism, n. Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express verbally, by means of the written word, or by any other manner-the actual functioning of thought. Dictation by thought, in the absence of all control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.
Encyclopedia: Surrealism. Philosophy. Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life.’
Born from the break with the Dada movement in 1992, the Surrealist movement has for ambition to reconsider radically the question of the language. The movement indeed tends to unite the conscious and the unconscious in the language which up to here recovered only the realm of the conscious. More than a simple movement, the Surrealism is a way of thinking, a way of... [à continuer]
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