Mesopotamia, which means “between the two rivers”, is considered as the origin of all civilization, for several reasons. First of all, it is due to its geographical situation, between Euphrates and Tiger, more or less the modern day Iraq. This situation has created a real growth of the Mesopotamian civilization, which has enhancedits development. Moreover, Mesopotamia does not have natural bounds, so it was a easy conquest for other civilizations, who were looking for power and territory. This part of the earth was the scene of many invasions. Due to this moving history, Mesopotamia was a massive mix of several cultures, artistic and technologic influences. It was a really rich and developed region.
It is here thatfirst cities and civilizations grew up, since 3500 B.C.E, such as Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonian, Assyrian or Neo-Babylonian, and had a shared culture which is central to all Mesopotamian life.
Origins of civilization are more or less mysterious. Researchers have established its existence between 5000 and 1750 B.C.E. Their language is not yet well known. It is neither neo-European norSemitic. Their language was the principal in Mesopotamia.
They are the creator of the cuneiform writings. They invented this type of writing to manage harvest and to write their laws, because they wanted the justice to be the same for all. This writing inspired many other civilizations. They also invented roads, pottery, arch, they combined copper and pewter to invent bronze, 12 months and 30 dayscalendar, sundials, numerical system based on 60, and circle of 360 degree, and they were the first to pay taxes.
The country was not a unified kingdom, but an overall of rivals and independent states, about a dozen. These states created kingdoms after many alliances and conquests. This conglomerate of states did not allow the creation of a capital, because the central power was moving everytime. Cities of Ourouk, Eridou, Nippour, Kisch and Lagash were the most important one. Our was the capital of Sumer under the 3rd dynasty.
In Our city, there were 2 temples dedicated to Anu, the supreme God, and to Inanna, the goddess of love and fertility. There were the religious edifices of the city. It seems that each city had its god and goddess. In this way Enlil, god of atmosphere, reveredat Nippur, instead of Nanna, god of moon, revered at Our. Each god has its his own temple and family.
Agricultural method, needing irrigation of land to fertilize it, require a complex social organization, including a hierarchical structure, which became more and more important. The growing population and surplus of food had to be managed. Writing was then a real need.
To tame lacks, citizenshad to be organized to organized massive constructions of canalization, at the end of the 4th millennium. This is when the principle of directing states was born. Many wars between these Sumerian states made this period really complex. Each city, protected by wall, was independents with their own divinity and government.
Around 2300 B.C.E, Sumerian was not the main language anymore in Mesopotamia.Akkadian has taken over it. At the end of the “ proto-literary”, Akkadians had take Sumerians writing, and had adapt it to the needs of Semetic language, which is quite different from Sumerian.
In 2000 B.C.E Sumerian was not talk anymore. Akkadian, then Assyria-Babylonian had definitely overtake it. On the other side, Sumerian had to keep being the language of religion, science, commerce andright for a long time. We think that Sumerian, as a literary language, was in use until the definitive disappearance of cuneiform writing.
The brilliant Sumer civilization, was the basis of Mesopotamian antiques civilizations, such as Akkadians.
Even if the Akkadian Empire was ephemeral, from 2350 to 2000 B.C.E, it really contributes to enhance the cultural heritage and left strong...