Media and Politics
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The period from 1948 to 1953 was a phase of high intensity in Cold War history and decisively shaped the future of the European continent. Analyse the key events in Europe in this period and their meaning for European integration.
The Cold War followed World War II and Europewill soon be divided into 2 blocks. The west supported by the United States and East supported by the USSR. The case of Germany is special but very important, because after the war Germany was divided into 4 zones headed by Americans, French, English and Russian. The three areas of the west will unite and formed the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), while the Russian side will become the GermanDemocratic Republic (GDR). Berlin this finding in the Russian part is divided in two. Europe is divided into two blocks, and is the site of many tensions between 1948 and 1953.
The Cold War was a global conflict, military, ideological, but also had very strong impact in various fields like culture, economics or science. He led the international developments and changes within individual countries.The Cold War was not a matter only US-Soviet, it involved both Europe and has shaped their destinies.
I: The Czechoslovakian coup of 1948 and the Brussels Treaty
It should be recalled that following the Second World War the army of the Soviet Union called "Red Army" has all the countries of Eastern Europe. Before 1948 the discussions on the Marshall Plan of U.S. judgments are difficultbecause of criticism from the right wing of Congress who advocated an isolationist policy, rather than spending money from the state in Europe, but Czechoslovakian coup will change the gives and the Marshall Plan will be signed April 3, 1948.
Of all the countries of Central Europe were liberated from Nazi and Soviet-occupied Czechoslovakia is the only one who has a long democratic tradition and apowerful Communist Party. It gets 38% of the vote in 1946 elections. While the government tries to position itself as the country time interface between the two emerging blocs, the announcement of the Marshall Plan in July 1947 has put an end to any possible opening to the West. Initially approved unanimously by the government, the plan was rejected unanimously a few days later at the behest ofStalin. Czechoslovakia is now clearly associated with the Soviet Union, which says its ideological and political grip on the country.
The crisis broke out February 17, 1948 when the Interior Minister is promoting eight new commissioners of police in Prague, all Communists, which showed the total control of the Communist Party of the security forces. This provoked protest followed the resignation ofthe Liberal ministers. They felt support from the President Beneš who encouraged them to start. The resigning thought provoking a political crisis followed by general elections which led the PC to defeat because of his refusal of the Marshall Plan.
Then we will see a succession of resignation from the Liberal minister who supports the hope of Beneš, but it is weakened by a stroke and is doubledby the Communist Party. Those who resigned were replaced by prominent pro-CP, from the left wing Social Democratic Party. Gottwald and Slansky mobilize their workers' militia and arrested hundreds of opponents within the political class, the press officers or suspects tried in the military.
After purification, the parliament approves the new government from the coup, unanimously, and PresidentBeneš refused its approval, before resigning himself, June 7, 1948. He died in September following.
The Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party merged, and the right-wing parties are coalition force in a National Front controlled by Communists. The elections held in June 1948 under the single lists without legal opposition, and officially give 90% of votes in the government.