Mathematics are constituted by abstracted knowledge with a logical reasoning, using numbers, structurs and figurs. Mathematics exist since thousand and thousand years, they were a lot of discoveries in science. The most famous inventions were discovered only by men.
So when we talk about mathematics, we only think about Pythagore, Archimède, Euclide or othersmathematicians. People know a lot of mathematicians but when you ask somebody if he knows famous women in mathematics, you have a few answers or no answers.
In fact, there were important women in mathematics history but we don’t know them. Why these women are not very known? In order to answer to that question, we are going to talk about famous women in mathematics and their story, secondly wa aregoing to talk about two famous and important women, and then we are going to see the relationship between women and mathematics.
I/ Men, women : story of mathematics
1.1 Men in mathematics
Everybody knows that mathematics are very important, and science could have been evolved without it. For instance, geometry and trigonometry allowed to calculate the size of the Earth and the distancebetween the Earth, the Sun and the Moon.
Men discovered the famous and the most important inventions and relations in mathematics. People who participated to the development of sciences are called : matematicians. Thanks them, there were an evolution in the inventions and the way of thinking since five centuary.
Before the XVe centuary, there were discoveries like the using of numbers, cercles,triangls,
It’s only on the XVe centuary that Italians discovered the perspectives used for constructions.
On the XVIe centuary, Ferrari, an Italian mathematician solved a fourth degre equation. So, Italians brought a major part of evolution.
On the XVIIe centuary, Descartes translated figurs in equations, called analytical geometry. It was a new way a new way to calculate.
At the end of theXVIIe centuary, Newton showed that the Earth turns around the Sun and he invented differential calculus.
Quickely, on the XVIIIe centuary, mathematics became necessary for the mechanics, perspective and électricité.
And then, on the XIXe centuary it’s the end of the world guided by agriculture and the Baining of the age of the industry.
So, there were several important discoveries in Historyand no women are mentioned. But some of women made science go ahead.
This citation shows the importance of numbers and geometry, the definition of mathematics:
" Numbers are the highest degree of knowledge. The number is knowledge. " " Geometry is the knowledge of what is always. "
Platon (427 befor JC-347 before JC)
1.2 Women in mathematicsThere were a few women in mathematics since the XIXe centuary. But there are exceptions, like Hypathie from Alexandrie whose we will give her biography later.
Pythagore’s wife is an exception of the rule, she is the only woman’s name whose we know from Antiquity. Later, at the Middle Age, some women had a good education, like the men, but we do not know no names of women in mathematics dating fromthis period.
After the science revolution and at the XVIIIe centuary, a lot of women receved a good education and sarted to studing mathematics. The three famous women from this period are Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1831), Gabrielle-Émilie of Châtelet (1706-1749) and Sophie Germain (1776-1831). Time passed and more and more women start to learn mathematics but until the XIXe centuary, thepercentage of women in mathematics is very small. So, the russian Sofja Kowalewskaja (1850-1891) was the first woman to obtain a doctorate. She always fight in order to women can study and learn. Later, when she finished her studies, she became a the first professional mathematician woman. She became a symbol for women.
At the end of the XIXe centuary, there were a lot of women who had a doctorate and...