In a first part, the case study of Burundi will highlights the impact of poverty reduction policies on social capital. In a second part, we will generalise these results on the sustainability of poverty reduction policies linked to develoment aid.
1ere partie : en quoi les politiques de lutte contre la pauvreté sont elles destructrices decapital social, et plus généralement peuvent elle avoir un impact négatif ?
2eme partie : en quoi ces politiques sont elles favorisées par la globalisation, et donc comment la globalisation des objectifs de lutte contre la pauvreté conduit-elle à la mise en place de politiques non soutenable ?
Definitions: development aid; sustainability; social capital; poverty reduction policy;Millenium development goals as the globalization of poverty reduction policies.
Concentration of aid on poverty reduction
Sustainability: Brundtland commission SD “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs”. SD is a process of simultanous ensuring continuation of the economic, social and ecological basis of human life.Social sustainability
I. The social impact of poverty reduction policies, the case of Burundi
To realize the case study of 3 provinces of Burundi, in a first time I will expose the set of concepts and the methodology that I use. And secondly, with this theoretical framework I will look at the situation in these provinces.
Concepts and methodology
a. Definition of social capital, and whyuse it in the case of poverty reduction policies
Capabilities, A. SEN;
- “the quantity and the quality of associational life and the related social norms” (Narayan and Pritchett, 1997).
- “linen shirt paradox” (Smith, 1776).
- “In the case of poor societies, social capital plays a major role. It constitutes an interpersonal capability of poor people to react to poverty.Social capital is thus a resource, but it induces a social effort (eg oft-repeated visits to people, multiplication of social links...). This effort concerning society may be considered as a social multiplier. An individual defines a constant value for this multiplier on the short-term, ie that the individual is more or less inclosed in relationships an social networks. In this case, altruism becomesan essential variable. If altruism is volatil, then an external shock issuing from a policy can provoke an increase in negative variable such as ill will and envy” (Ballet and Mahieu, 2001).
- “a poor people in a poor economy owns potential resources, mostly informal, issuing from other people, eg inter vivos transfers and informal activities. These resources are “altruistic”: they depend oneach and all altruism.” (Ballet and Mahieu, 2001).
Our argumentation is based on the following idea:
Everyone, even the poorest, owns an assets and activities portfolio, holding potential and effective incomes. This structure of asset is vulnerable because it is tightly linked to the type of social interaction in front of poverty reduction policies shock. This is the central conflict betweenpublic and private transfers strategies. What is the impact of poverty reduction policies on social capital and capabilities?
Firstly we will develop the concept of “interpersonal capabilities” of poor people, linked to social capital.
- “the whole of social relationships and networks, standards and values that lead to social cohesion, cooperation and to the achievment of objectives and commoninterests” (Charmes, 1999).
We will understand “pluriactivity” as “the practise of several professional activities, managed successively or simultaneously in a year by one person (Benoît and Gerbaux, 1997).
The results of our study shows that as public transfers are generally conditioned, ie they involve activities linked to the disbursement of aid, the available time for informal activity...