Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, (in February 4th, 1913, Tuskegee, Alabama the United States - October 24th, 2005, Detroit, Michigan), was a black needlewomanwho became a symbolic face(figure) of the fight against the racial segregation in the United States, what was worth to her mother's nickname of the movement of the civilrights on behalf of the American Congress.
Parks became famous because on December 1st, 1955, in Montgomery (Alabama), she refused to give up her place to a whitepassenger in a bus. Arrested by the police, she lives to impose a 10-dollar fine (more 4 dollars of legal costs) on December 5th; she appealed of thisjudgment(sentence). A young black minister 26-year-old stranger, Martin Luther King, with the cooperation of Ralph Abernathy, threw(launched) then a campaign of protest and boycottagainst the company of buses which lasted 381 days. On November 13th, 1956, the Supreme Court broke the segregationist laws in buses, declaring them unconstitutional.
RosaParks became famous when, on December 1st, 1955 in the city of Montgomery, sherefused to obey the bus driver James Blake who asks her to leave his place to a White andto go to sit down at the back of the bus.
In Montgomery's buses, the first four rows(ranks) were reserved for the Whites. The Blacks, who represented 75 % of theusers, were appointed behind the bus. They could nevertheless sit down in the central zone, until Whites need it; they had to then either give up their place and gotowards the bottom, or leave the bus. Mrs Parks was not the first person to violate this regulation(payment) and the other persons had paid it hard, sometimes of their life.