On May 13, 1931, the International Olympic Committee, headed by Count Henri Baillet-Latour of Belgium, awarded the 1936 Summer Olympics to Berlin. The choice signaled Germany's return to the world community after defeat in World War I. Two years later, Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany and quickly turned the nation's fragile democracy into a one-partydictatorship. Police rounded up thousands of political opponents, detaining them without trial in concentration camps. The Nazi regime also put into practice racial policies that aimed to "purify" and strengthen the Germanic "Aryan" population. A relentless campaign began to exclude Germany’s one-half million Jews from all aspects of German life.
For two weeks in August 1936, Adolf Hitler's Nazidictatorship camouflaged its racist, militaristic character while hosting the Summer Olympics.
The winter games (6-16 february) constituted a sort of dress rehearsals for the world opinion attentive to the driving(behavior) of Nazi Germany.
Softpedaling its antisemitic agenda and plans for territorial expansion, the regime exploited the Games to bedazzle many foreign spectators and journalists withan image of a peaceful, tolerant Germany. Having rejected a proposed boycott of the 1936 Olympics, the United States and other western democracies missed the opportunity to take a stand that--some observers at the time claimed--might have given Hitler pause and bolstered international resistance to Nazi tyranny. With the conclusion of the Games, Germany's expansionist policies and the persecutionof Jews and other "enemies of the state" accelerated, culminating in World War II and the Holocaust.
I. Nazification of sports and the Aryan Race
Germany is an election’s earth for the physical exercises conceived as a means to strengthen the race and to increase the national cohesion.
Indeed the Nazification of all aspects of German life extended even to sport. A staunch Nazi closeto Hitler, Hans von Tschammer und Osten, headed the Reich Sports Office, which oversaw all sports bodies and clubs, including the German Olympic Committee planning the 1936 Games.
The government harnessed sport as part of its drive to strengthen the "Aryan race," to exercise political control over its citizens, and to prepare German youth for war. "Non-Aryans"--Jewish or part-Jewish and Gypsyathletes--were systematically excluded from German sports facilities and associations. They were allowed marginal training facilities, and their opportunities to compete were limited.
German sports imagery in the 1930s promoted the myth of Aryan racial superiority and physical power. Artists idealized athletes' well-developed muscle tone and heroic strength and accentuated so-called Aryan facialfeatures -- blue eyes and blond hair. Such imagery also reflected the importance the Nazi regime placed on physical fitness.
Exist differents physical exercice, which underline the nazafication of sports:
The first one resulted from "Sturmabteilung" and consisted essentially in valuing the combat sports and the real or feigned military exercises. The boxing and the Jujitsu but also practicesof shooting(firing), throw of pomegranates(grenades), forced marches …
Racism, spirit of fight(wrestling) and revenge, hatred of the free culture and the intellectuals, the intolerance to minorities, anti-Semitism, worship(cult) of the rough strength, the excessive militarization and the preparations warriors were the dominant lines(features) of the sport conceived by limited companies.
Thesecond sensibility was represented by Turnerschaft, German national gymnastic movement the ideology of which took root in the populist national representations of the XIXth century.
The organization of the hitlerians youths mobilized boys into the National Socialist community through sport and hiking, and later prepared them for combat in war.
→ The German sport was thus built in the time...