1) Charles Robert Darwin (born in February 12th, 1809 - April 19th, 1882) was an English naturalist who worked on the evolution of the living species. His studies revolutionized the biology and “our perception of the world.”
Indeed he established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, as it can be seen on the lines our introduction “His theories of evolution by the process of natural selection”
In biology, the natural selection is one of the mechanisms which guide the evolution of the species. This mechanism is particularly important because it explains the adaptation of the species to the environment. The theory of the natural selection allows to explain and to understand how the environment influences the evolution of the species and of the populations by selecting the most adapted individuals. So that’s a fundamental argument of the theory of evolution. For example the evolution of the Men who result from the evolution of the monkey.
2) At that time the links between religion and culture are still very strong in the XIXth century. The religion influences, the politics feeds, the philosophic, literary and artistic domains. Her role in the cultural institutions is essential in that time. Moreover the XIXth century is characterized by the industrial revolution and a lot of political modification in Europe.
3) The theory which is opposite to Darwin’s theory of the natural selection is the creationism.
The creationism is a religious doctrine based on the belief that the life, the Earth, and by extension the Universe, were created by a supernatural being (=by a God), according to modalities corresponding to a reading of the Bible.
This theory appeared in contrast with the theory of evolution adopted by the scientific community; the