History of nice

Pages: 6 (1446 mots) Publié le: 13 mars 2011
Nice

We are going to explain to you the history of our wonderful city

Firstly, we are going to star with the Foundation of the city :The first known human settlements in the Nice area date back approximately 400,000 years theTerra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire and construction of houses are dated as around 230,000 years old.Nice was probably founded around350 BC by theGreeks of Massilia (Marseille), and was given the name of Nikaia in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians(Nike is the Greekgoddess of victory). The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of theLombard invasions. Theruins of Cemenelum are located in Cimiez, which is now the place where we live.
Then we are going to continu with the early developmentIn the 7th century, Nice joined theGenoeseLeague formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens; but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country.During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally ofPisa it was the enemy ofGenoa, and both the King of France and the Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained itsmunicipal liberties. During the course of the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of theCounts of Provence, but finally remainedindependent even if related to Genoa.
In 1388 the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. Nice participated - directly or indirectly - in the history of Savoy up until 1860.
The maritime strength of Nice now rapidly increased until it was able to cope with theBarbary pirates; the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. In 1561EmmanuelPhilibert, Duke of Savoy, abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian languageas the official language of government affairs in Nice.
During the struggle betweenFrancis Iand Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invadingProvence;pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. It was in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubetthat the two monarchs in 1538 concluded, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, a truce of ten years.
In 1543, Nice was attacked by the unite Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, in the Siege of Nice; and, though the inhabitants repulsed the assault which succeeded the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed topillage the city and to carry off 2,500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580
In 1600, Nice was briefly taken by the duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the county to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade (1626), the commerce of the city was given great stimulus, the noble families taking part in its mercantile enterprises.
Captured by Nicolas Catinat in 1691, Nicewas restored to Savoy in 1696; but it was again besieged by the French in 1705, and in the following year its citadel and ramparts were demolished.
The treaty of Utrecht in 1713 once more gave the city back to the Duke of Savoy who was on that same occasion recognized as King of Sicily. In the peaceful years which followed the "new town" was built. From 1744 till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle(1748) the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In 1775 the king, who in 1718 had swapped his sovereignty of Sicily for the Kingdom of Sardinia, destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune. Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the First French Republic, the County of Nice continued to be part of France until 1814; but after that date it reverted to the Kingdom of...
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