With a 3 287 732 km surface ² (It’s six times bigger than France) India is the seventh biggest country in the world. The biggest distance covers 2 933 km from east to west, and 3 214 km from north to south (of the north headland of the Cashmere on the Cape Comorin) .The Tropic of Cancer passes in the middle of the country which is separated from the Asian continent by Himalaya.Lined in the North by China, Nepal and Bhutan, in the East by Burma and Bangladesh, on the West by Pakistan, India possesses 15 200 km of ground borders and 6 100 km of coast. The Ganges, in which waters get involved to those of the Brahmaputra in the East to form an immense delta, is 2 500 km. Its pond, twice big as France, appears among the regions where the density of population is one ofstronger of the world. In the South of this plain rises the plateau of Deccan lined by the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal peaking in 8 614 metres and forming more than 5 500 km of coast.
The country can divide into 4 big geographical zones:
-Himalaya, big continuous chain on 2 400 km, with a width varying from 240 to 320 km
-the Ganges plain, parallel to the Himalayanchain. It consists of 3 main ponds (the Indus on the West, the Ganges in the centre and the Brahmaputra in the East). This region, very flatboat, is often destroyed by the monsoon which floods the plain.
- The desert zone, including Rann de Kutch and Rajasthan on the West.
- The peninsular plateau, separated from the pond of the Ganges by several mountain ranges of average height (450 - 1 200m): mountains Aravalli, Vindya, Satpura, Marikola and Ajanta.
East of the peninsula is a coastal chain: oriental Ghâts (600 m), separated from the bay of Bengal by another coastal where chain meets itself the estuaries of 2 big rivers of the South of India, Kristna and Godavari. On the West, the peninsula is also lined by a coastal chain of higher height (1 000 - 2 400 m): Western Ghâts separatedfrom the sea of Arabia by a slender band of coast. Those massifs meet in the south pf the peninsula to form Nilgiris chain.
India, thanks to its big area in latitude and its extreme relief (for example, there are hot sea in high tops), has a variety of animal life and flora very important.
Ganges Area, very cultivated, has some sals forests. Indus area ((Rajasthan, Kutch and north of Gujarat) isdesert. The Assam is plentiful of luxuriant vegetation where there are savannas, bamboo and Tropicana forests.
India is home to one of the richest and the most ancient civilizations in the world, which existed over 5,000 years ago. This civilization originated in the Indus River Valley; hence the name given to it was Indus Valley civilization. It was the origin of many of theideas, philosophies and movements which have shaped the destiny of mankind. Its people are thought to be Dravidians, whose descendants still inhabit the far south of India.
In the conventional narrative, Indian history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal, followed by the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usuallydescribed as the pre-Vedic and Vedic periods. It is in the Vedic period that Hinduism first arose, though some elements of Hinduism are clearly drawn from the Indus Valley civilization. In the fourth century BCE, large parts of India were united under the emperor Ashoka; he also converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism first spread to other parts of Asia. It is during the time ofthe Mauryas that Hinduism first began to take the shape that fundamentally informs the religion down to the present day, though popular or Puranic Hinduism is generally dated to around the beginning of the Christian era. Successor states were more fragmented. Islam first came to India in the eighth century, and by the eleventh century had firmly established itself in India as a political force;...
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