Napoleon 1st (August 15, 1769 Ajaccio - May 5, 1821 Saint Helen ). Emperor of the French (1804-1814 and 1815). Resulting from a Corsican family, Napoleon Bonaparte is allowed in 1779 at the military academy of Brienne, then in 1784 with that of Paris. Became artillery lieutenant, it carries out a garrison life and embraces with heat the ideas of the Revolution in 1789. It is distinguished withthe seat from Toulon and its tactic makes it possible to take again the revolted city (December 1793).
In October 1795, it ruins a royalist takeover by force against Convention. A few months later, it receives the command of the army of Italy, This military campaign reveals a great man of war: from March 1796 to April 1797, it beats the armies Italian and Austrian and obliges Austria to askpeace. The treaty of Campo-Formio (October 1797) is the work of Bonaparte, marking his independence with regard to the Directory. The forwarding of Egypt completes to perfect its popularity (1798-1799).
In October 1799, it returns to France, where the Directory struggles in enormous difficulties. It then represents the arm armed for all those which want to finish some with the mode. Bonaparteorganizes with Sieyès the coup d'etat of 18 and 19 brumaire (November 1799) and becomes provisional consul. The Constitution of year VIII (December 1799), which is its work, invests it, as a first consul of a considerable capacity. The Consulate achieves inside a significant work of pacification and reorganization. The conclusion of the Legal settlement with the pope Pie VIl in 1801 brings backreligious peace. The France is equiped of new administrative , legal and financial institution (creation of prefect in 1800, of Bank of France in 1800 and of Franc germinal in 1803, promulgation of Civil code civil in 1804).
At outside, the war continues against Austria, Bonaparte conducts one second campaign of ltaly while another army is committed in Germany (1800): Austria is overcome and signsthe treaty of Lunéville (February 9, 1801). The whole ltaly falls under the French domination. England isolated sign Peace from Amiens in March 1802. For the first time for ten years, France has known a general peace. Bonaparte is named consul with life in August 1802.
But peace lasts only a little more than one year, England reopening the hostilities in May 1803. The royalists, seeking toreverse Bonaparte, foment a plot with Cadoudal in 1804. The caused emotion is the occasion of a new transformation of the mode: May 18, 1804, Bonaparte becomes emperor of the French under the name of Napoleon 1 er, and on December 2 with Our-Lady of Paris, it is crowned by the pope Pie Vll.
It is the return to a hereditary monarchical system, with a Court, an imperial nobility and an order ofknighthood, the Legion of Honor. The imperial university east is created in 1808. Napoleon 1 st is supported by the French as long as it gains military victories. On the continent, the emperor carry out a campaign strike down (victory of Austerlitz in December 1805), the Austria must sign the treaty of Presbourg, which it cut down of territory significant. Germany is transformed by the creation of theConfederation of the Rhine (July 1806), it is the end of the Saint Worsens Roman Germanic.
Against the fourth coalition, Napoleon conducts two campaigns: the Prussia is overcome with Iena and Auerstadt (14 October 1806) and loses some territories with profit of a Poland recreate (Grand Duchy of Warsaw), the Russia is overcome with Friedland (14 June 1807) and the tsar Alexandre 1st must acceptthe peace and the French Alliance (treat of Tilsitt of July 1807). England remains alone in war against it and to asphyxiate it economically, Napoleon founds the continental Blockade in November 1806, but to make it more effective, it is obliged to hold all the European coasts: it thus annexes Portugal in 1807, and the Papal States in 1808. With this intention, France must invade Spain: Napoleon...
Lire le document complet
Veuillez vous inscrire pour avoir accès au document.