This is a speech made by Barack Obama in February 2008 during the primaries campaign.
[Primaries are elections organised in each state by each party from January till June of the year of a presidential election to elect the official candidate of the party at the presidential election. In fact electors who are party members (closed primaries) or any elector (open primaries) or meetings of the local party activists (caucus) select delegates to the National Convention of the party, who will vote for the candidate to the nomination of the party. The Democratic Convention and the Republican Convention are held at the end of the summer, and then the official campaign begins. The vote takes place on the first Thursday of November and the President-Elect is inaugurated on the 20th of January]
So, Obama’s opponent at the time of the speech was Hillary Clinton and they were the last two competitors in the Democratic race for the nomination. Hillary Clinton’s campaign team unearthed the story of Pastor Jeremiah Wright to try and derail Obama’s campaign. Reverent Wright was the Pastor of the (black) United Trinity Church in Chicago’s South Side which the Obama family attended, and he had made violent sermons attacking America on racial grounds. So Clinton’s team tried to bring the campaign on racial grounds to show that Obama would be the president only of African-Americans and to discourage white American from voting for him. This is Obama’s reply to this campaign of smear, to this mudslinging.
1. (l1-26) America’s ideal and its shortcomings
The first words of his speech are the first words of the preamble of the Constitution of the U.S. So, he clearly sets his political struggle in the steps of the Founding Fathers and on the ground of the American ideal they represented.
Symbolically, he made this speech in Philadelphia which is the birthplace of the United States as it was there that the Continental Congress which voted the declaration of