The beginning of the cold war: the Truman doctrine and the Marshall plan, 1947
To what extent can we say the Marshal plan and the Truman doctrine that took place during the cold war, were successful attempts to repel Communism from Europe?
I. The beginning of the cold war
A. There were deep ideological, economic and political differences between the United States andthe Soviet Union before the Second World War. These differences were intensified as a result of their suspicions immediately after the Second World War. First of all ideologically speaking the two blocs were at antipodes In the United States, the government is elected by free elections. The people can form political parties to voice their political opinions. They also possessed the right ofassembly, of speech and of the press. In the Soviet Union, the government is formed by the Communist Party. Soviets are not given most of the rights such as speech or multipartism. Economically speaking the American model is based on a free market economy whereas the Soviet union is mainly national independence market governed by the government. In addition they were the two most influential blocs andwanted dominate each other.
Tensions were also created by the divulgation of the Truman and the launch of the Truman doctrine in 1947 at the peace time conferences. In addition America feared a spread of communism to Europe at first and then to the world? They did not trust each other so they could not agree, the war was inevitable.
B. Cold War and collapse
In the 1980s, the United Statesincreased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures against the USSR, which had already, went through severe economic stagnation. Thereafter, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika ("reconstruction", "reorganization", 1987) and glasnost ("openness", ca. 1985). The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, leaving the United States as the dominant militarypower, and Russia possessing most of the Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal.
II. The Truman doctrine
A._ Truman, Goal_
Harry S. Truman was a democrat. His presidency began in 1945 and ended in 1953. He was obviously America’s president while the II World War was still in progress. He’s the one that dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in order to defeat Japan once and for all.Unfortunately, soon after the Potsdam conferences, relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate and he resulted in creating what is known as the Truman doctrine.
The Truman doctrine is a policy of containment that kept Communism from spreading throughout the globe. It was declared in Truman’s speech in 1947 and it consisted in providing all the help needed to helpfight against Communism instauration. In Truman's words, it was "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. This took set after Kennan’s “long telegram”’s warning. Kennan was an American diplomat set in Moscow who warned America of Saline’s plan.
It was very important for America politicallyspeaking, to support countries that were “threatened” by Communism because the spread would make of him a stronger model. The balance of forces had to be equilibrated
_B. Greece and Turkey_
The Truman doctrine did a lot to Greece during its civil war. The act, which Truman signed on May 22, 1947, granted Greece $300 million in military and economic aid to counter a conversion into Communism.This helped the country indeed. Truman knew that if Greece fell, it would have brought Turkey in its fall as well. That would have been a radical Communist triumph that wouldn’t have pleased the United States.
At the conclusion of World War II, Stalin demanded partial control of the Dardanelles, a strategic passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. In response the U.S. dispatched...
Lire le document complet
Veuillez vous inscrire pour avoir accès au document.