Cours d'anglais. avec exercices

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Course 1: Pre-industrial Society primary sector agriculture agricultural economy / revolution subsistence agriculture to cultivate land to cultivate a crop crop food crop : wheat, maize (US corn) subsistence crops cash crop : cotton, rubber, coffee etc. fishing, hunting mining, forestry commodity raw material(s) minerals bullion secteur primaire agriculture économie agricole / révolutionagriculture de subsistance cultiver la terre cultiver une denrée récolte, culture, denrée récolte alimentaire : blé, maïs culture pour autoconsommation culture commerciale / de rente coton, caoutchouc, café etc. pêche, chasse exploitation minière, sylviculture produit de base - marchandises matière(s) première(s) minéarux or/argent en lingot(s)

1) To sell agricultural products on the market,traditional societies abandon farming of …………………..…….. . 2) ……………………… are characterised by very strong price fluctuations, which tend to make the export earnings of developing countries unstable. 3) Cuba has become a recent exporter of ……… ………. such as coffee and grapefruit. 4) In most developed, high-income countries, the ……….. ………. only represents a small share of GDP and employment. 5) Historically, arise in …………….. production has been a pre-condition for industrialisation. social class(es ) landlord farmer peasant farmer tenant farmer peasant sharecropper agricultural labourer artisan, craftsman entrepreneur, capitalist manufacturer worker classe(s) sociale(s) propriétaire foncier fermier paysan (propriétaire de ses terres) cultivateur à bail paysan (sans terre) métayer travailleur agricoleartisan entrepreneur, capitaliste fabricant travailleur
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workshop – factory guilds a trade, a craft a profession

atelier – usine corporation un métier une profession

6) The enclosure movement pushed many ………………………off the land and into cities. 7) Manufacturing began first in small-scale ……………………… before it moved into factories. 8) The development of industrial activity led to adecline of the medieval …….. as goods could be produced with less-skilled labour. yield – return, rate of return crop yield – output per hectare the yield on government bonds to yield/produce output, production input(s) production factors capital and labour capital equipment / capital goods rendement, rapport, taux de rendement rendement des cultures rendement des obligations d’Etat produire productionintrant(s) facteurs de production capital et travail biens d’équipement

9) Increasing agricultural ……………… was a pre-condition for the Industrial Revolution. 10) The “Green Revolution”, irrigation and the use of fertilisers helped increase crop ………….… in many developing countries during the late 1960s and 1970s. 11) Investment in ………. …………. is vital to raising industrial production. goods –physical products for sale “a good” (used in economics) goods and services products bien un bien biens et services produits

12) As banks and insurance companies merge, they seek to provide their clients with new ……………….. . 13) The price of a ………………. is determined by the interaction of demand and supply. 14) New tourism ………… are permanently being created by travel companies to attract newclients. 15) There is virtually no economic growth in a ………..……. . 16) During its drive to maturity, a country’s …………………….. undergoes rapid change, as skill requirements evolve and economic activity shifts geographically.

Read the text below, then answer the following questions:
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Feudal society was characterised by agricultural production, mainly of subsistence crops. This was carried out bypeasant farmers. A direct share of their output was taken by landlords. Other primary sector activities also existed, such as hunting, fishing, forestry and some mining, as they had always done. Goods production was undertaken by artisans, often organised in “guilds”. This allowed them to ensure the quality of work carried out by fellow tradesmen, and enabled them to protect, themselves from open...
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