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Battery Guide for Small Stand Alone PV Systems. IEA PVPS Task III

991223

1 (33)

Lead-Acid Battery Guide for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

IEA Task III Report IEA-PVPS 3-06:1999 December 1999

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Battery Guide for Small Stand Alone PV Systems. IEA PVPS Task III991223

2 (33)

CONTENTS FOREWORD ..................................................................................................................................... 5 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................ 6 1. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Solar energy .............................................................................................................................................. 7 1.2 Sun power into electricity......................................................................................................................... 7 1.3 Lead-acidbatteries all over the world ..................................................................................................... 7 2. THE BATTERY - A ”CONTAINER” FOR ELECTRICITY .............................................................. 9 3. A CLOSER LOOK INSIDE A LEAD-ACID BATTERY ............................................................... 10 3.1 Positive electrodedesign......................................................................................................................... 10 3.2 Negative electrode designs...................................................................................................................... 10 3.3Electrolyte............................................................................................................................................... 11 3.4 Cell cases made of moulded plastics....................................................................................................... 12 3.5 Battery boxes for small systems.............................................................................................................. 12 3.5 Standardised terminals and connectors................................................................................................. 12 4. WHAT TYPE OF BATTERY SHOULD BE CHOSEN? ................................................................ 13 5. BATTERY VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS .............................................................................. 15 5.1 The higher the discharge rate - the lower the battery voltage.............................................................. 15 5.2 Higher voltage with series connection.................................................................................................... 15 6. BATTERY CAPACITY - THE AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY STORED......................................... 16 6.1 Capacity can differ from battery to battery .......................................................................................... 166.2 Design your system based on 80% of nominal battery capacity............................................................ 16 6.3 How to size the battery for a certain system and load........................................................................... 17 6.3 Higher capacity with parallel connection.............................................................................................. 18 6.4 Capacity will increase slightly in the beginning of operation................................................................ 18 6.5 Temperature effect on capacity.............................................................................................................. 18 7. CHARGING FILLS YOUR ENERGY STORAGE ............................................................................
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