Introduction : Definition and origins of Operations Management.
Operations management is a discipline that concern the production of goods and services. In fact its role is to optimize this production. It involves to manage all the operations of production as efficiently as possible, using the few ressources as possible to satisfy customer's need.
Operationsmanagement controls all the process that transform labor, raw materials or energy (any ressources) into finished product or service. This discipline is an organizational system that allow inputs become outputs. It is used as well for a hotel or a restaurant as well for a factory. Actually, it is used for any business that involves a process of converting, by different steps, different or group ofpeople, any ressources into anything that can be sold and make profit. Moreover, in many cases, companies cumulate and provide goods and services.
In other words, OM was invented to make increase the performances and the productivity of a company, to make her be more profitable, more competitive. With the OM, all the steps of production is thought to define which quantity of ressource do we have toallocate to each task in order to spend the few money and time as pssible. Operations Management includes more generally the management of the employees, of the production, of the materials, the production cost control, and the pwork planning.
This discipline has to adapt itself to the sector of activity, to the type of good or service, to the size of the company but also to the economiccontext. That's why it always keep changing and progressing over the years.
The Operations Management takes its origins in all the cultural changes that happenned during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Before these events, the sale of goods and services was really more simple because their production were very smaller and ensured by artisans or really small companies.
The disignation « OperationsManagement » takes a real meaning during the industrial revolution than began at the end of the 18th century.
In 1769, James Watt create the first steam engine. This innovation announces the beginning of operations management.
In 1776, Adam smith launch for the first time the idea of « labor division » which consists in assigning workers a small and easy task that they can repeat again andagain. This concept is a revolution in the manufacturing history and it grow up considerably the productivity.
Evolution of Operations Management.
A) Scientific Management.
The scientific Management begins with the Taylorism at the beginning of the 19th century. As an engineer, his goals are to rationalise the employees move and to reduce dead times in factories by implementing a betterproduction organisation. According to him, in a company the direction has to plan the production and to impose to each employee a specific task and the way to do it. Tasks are timed in order to establish the standardisation of work. The taylorism advocates to separate any tasks and to divide the production process.
From Taylor's work Gant and the Gilbreth brother's continue in the same way bydecomposing every tasks into the smallest elements as possible that can be done bay any workers of medium level in order to exploit as much as possible the work strenght and to increase the rate. These analyse aims to delete any useless move.
Maynard contribute also to the scientific management developing the « method time measurement » which give to the employees a standard time for each movement.Finaly,
Ford create the moving assembly line, thanks to interchangeable parts. The moving assembly line is a group of workstation arranged in a specific order corresponding to the process of assembly operations. Thanks to this process, the workers don't move anymore because the peaces to assemble come to them. At this moment this is an extraordinary gain of time.
B) The human relations...