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a) The age of Enlightement: a general description

People have the right to be happy, free, and equal.
Political texts that expressed this idea:
1688:The Glorious Revolution116: declaration of independence (US)
1789: DDHC

Kant: E. is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority.

b) Reason as the cornerstone of human development

The Queen of theNight, embodying irrationality and obscurantism in Mozart’s opera “The Magic flute”

c) Progress in sciences, philosophy and ideas

- Liberty, know ledge and empiricism

Motors: dare to know (Kantused this term)
Idea: have the courage to use our intellectual faculties.
A lot of new industries appear, new technologies in the 20th century. People want to know how their intellects work, ex:John Locke wrote an essay concerning Human understanding.
His theory: “We learn from experiences” – empiricism
When a baby comes to live, it’s like a table with nothing on it. If you discover theword, you learn and then you can understand this one.

- The scientific method applied to all forms of know ledge.

Invented by Newton.
Three steps of scientific method:
- Observation
- Verification

This was applied to history, linguistic…

- Criticism as the most effective weapon against credulity

Everything have o be discussed, check..
People gradually quitted theirreligions --- The very age of criticism.
They wanted things to be proved

- Optimism and Progress

Because of this very rapid progress people become optimistic, people believe in progress,natural rights (invented in the 20TH century)

Conclusion: They installed liberty: economics, politics, esthetical

I/ political liberty: end of autocratic rule, individual liberties and equalitya) How and why did the 1688 Glorious Revolution (among others) take place?

1688: The Glorious Revolution: a brief summary
Also called: the bloodless revolution

James the 2nd: was asked to...
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