La guerre totale

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Martin Luther King :

Martin Luther King, Jr. is a Baptist afro-American minister born in Atlanta (United States) on January 15th, 1929 and dead man murdered on April 4th, 1968 to Memphis. Martin Luther King, Jr., was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later he had his name changed to Martin.
Not violent activist for the civil rights of the Blacks in the United States, for the peace andagainst the poverty, he organizes and manages actions such the Boycott of Montgomery's buses to defend the right to vote, the desegregation and the employment of minorities. " I have has Dream ", title of his speech calling up to the brotherhood between blacks and whites, became a real hymn in the solidarity and in the hope of agreement between all the communities.

He becomes in 1954 a minister ina Montgomery's Baptist church, in Alabama. On December 1st, 1955, Rosa Parks refuses to give up her place to a white in Montgomery's bus and is called by the police.
It is to refuse this established fact that the black personalities of Montgomery issue an appeal to the boycott of the company of buses of the city. That very evening of this first day of action, an organization is created andMartin Luther King is elected in the head. During almost one year, the boycott will continue in spite of the attempts of intimidation concentrated on Luther King: attack against his place of residence, detention. Finally, the Supreme Court disagrees with the company of buses.
Luther King participates with about ten black personalities of the South of the United States in the foundation of a nationalorganization: the SCLC (conference of the Christian leaders of the South). Elected in the presidency, he decides to spread to the whole country his nonviolent fight for the civil rights of the blacks. Luther King, in admirer of Gandhi, claims the influence of the Indian on his thought and journey in 1958 on these tracks.
On August 28th, 1963, Luther King is in the head of the walking on Washingtonfor the work and the freedom. In front of 250 000 persons, he pronounces his famous speech known under the name " I have a dream ". He wishes for a country where each would share the same rights in the justice and the peace. He will then be received by John Fitzgerald Kennedy. In 1964, he receives the Nobel Peace Prize
Nevertheless, his influence tends to decrease within the afro-Americancommunity. But the more radical and more violent ideas of Malcom X win. The refusal of the black community has henceforth a new face. And the murder of Kennedy, perceived as a defender of the blacks, gives little place to the hope. However, he is in the highly-rated of the president Johnson in 1965 when this one signs "Voting Rights Act" who guarantees the civic equality. In front of such reports, hemakes a commitment against the Vietnam War but especially he try to fight against the poverty. While he prepares a new march against the poverty, he is murdered on the balcony of his hotel room to Memphis on April 4th, 1968.
His nonviolent methods were certainly fundamental for the fulfillment of the quality of the rights while avoiding plunging the country into a civil war. Having always refusedto give in to the violence, Martin Luther King was imperative in the same way as Gandhi as the symbol of a fight which does not leave the place with weapons We award him posthumously the presidential Medal of the freedom by Jimmy Carter in 1977, the golden medal of the Congress in 2004, and is considered as one of the biggest American speakers. Since 1986, the Martin Luther King Day is a holiday inthe United States.

Malcolm X

Malcolm X, been born Malcolm Little on May 19th, 1925 to Omaha and dead man murdered on February 21st, 1965 in New York, also known under the name of El-Hajj Malek El-Shabazz, was an afro-American Muslim moralizer. He also based Muslim Mosque, Inc. as well as Organization of Afro-American Unity, OAAU. For his admirers, it was a brave defender of the right...
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