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In human language, a phoneme is the smallest structural unit that distinguishes meaning. Phonemes are not the physical segments themselves, but, in theoretical terms, cognitive abstractions or categorizations of them.
An example of a phoneme is the /t/ sound in the words tip, stand, water, and cat. (In transcription, phonemes are placed between slashes, as here.) These instances of /t/ areconsidered to be the same sound despite the fact that in each word they are pronounced somewhat differently.

In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar speech sounds (phones) that belong to the same phoneme.
Semantics (Greek σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. In linguistics it is the studyof interpretation of signs as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts.[1] It has related meanings in several other fields.
Semanticists differ on what constitutes meaning in an expression. For example, in the sentence, "John loves a bagel", the word bagel may refer to the object itself, which is its literal meaning or denotation, but it may also refer to manyother figurative associations, such as how it meets John's hunger, etc., which may be its connotation. Traditionally, the formal semantic view restricts semantics to its literal meaning, and relegates all figurative associations to pragmatics, but this distinction is increasingly difficult to defend[2]. The degree to which a theorist subscribes to the literal-figurative distinction decreases as onemoves from the formal semantic, semiotic, pragmatic, to the cognitive semantic traditions.
A word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another word or other words in a language
A polyseme is a word or phrase with multiple, related meanings
In linguistics, a homonym is one of a group of words that share the samespelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings
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In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning. In spoken language, morphemes are composed of phonemes (the smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound), and in written language morphemes are composed ofgraphemes (the smallest units of written language).
* morpheme: a combination of sounds that have a meaning.  A morpheme does not necessarily have to be a word.  Example:  the word cats has two morphemes. Cat is a morpheme, and s is a morpheme.  Every morpheme is either a base or an affix.  An affix can be either a prefix or a suffix.  Cat is the base morpheme, and s is a suffix.
*affix: a morpheme that comes at the beginning (prefix) or the ending (suffix) of a base morpheme.  Note: An affix usually is a morpheme that cannot stand alone.  Examples: -ful, -ly, -ity, -ness. A few exceptions are able, like, and less.
* base: a morpheme that gives a word its meaning.  The base morpheme cat gives the word cats its meaning: a particular type of animal.
* prefix: an affixthat comes before a base morpheme.  The in in the word inspect is a prefix.
* suffix: an affix that comes after a base morpheme.  The s in cats is a suffix.
* free morpheme: a morpheme that can stand alone as a word without another morpheme.  It does not need anything attached to it to make a word. Cat is a free morpheme.
* bound morpheme: a sound or a combination of sounds thatcannot stand alone as a word.  The s in cats is a bound morpheme, and it does not have any meaning without the free morpheme cat.
* inflectional morpheme: this morpheme can only be a suffix.  The s in cats is an inflectional morpheme.  An  inflectional morpheme creates a change in the function of the word. Example: the d in invited indicates past tense. English has only seven inflectional...
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