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UNCTAD Series on issues in international investment agreements


UNCTAD serves as the focal point within the United Nations Secretariat for all matters related to foreign direct investment and transnational corporations. In the past, the Programme onTransnational Corporations was carried out by the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations (1975–1992) and the Transnational Corporations and Management Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Development (1992–1993). In 1993, the Programme was transferred to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. UNCTAD seeks to further the understanding of the nature oftransnational corporations and their contribution to development and to create an enabling environment for international investment and enterprise development. UNCTAD's work is carried out through intergovernmental deliberations, research and analysis, technical assistance activities, seminars, workshops and conferences. The term "country" as used in this study also refers, as appropriate, toterritories or areas; the designations employed and the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. In addition, the designations of country groups areintended solely for statistical or analytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage of development reached by a particular country or area in the development process. The following symbols have been used in the tables: Two dots (..) indicate that data are not available or are not separately reported. Rows in tables have been omitted in those cases where no data areavailable for any of the elements in the row; A dash (-) indicates that the item is equal to zero or its value is negligible; A blank in a table indicates that the item is not applicable; A slash (/) between dates representing years (e.g. 1994/1995) indicates a financial year; Use of a hyphen (–) between dates representing years (e.g. 1994–1995) signifies the full period involved, including thebeginning and end years. Reference to "dollars" ($) means United States dollars, unless otherwise indicated. Annual rates of growth or change, unless otherwise stated, refer to annual compound rates. Because of rounding, details and percentages in tables do not necessarily add to totals. The material contained in this study may be freely quoted provided appropriate acknowledgement is made.UNCTAD/ITE/IIT/30 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No.E.03.II.D.5 ISBN 92-1-112577-4 Copyright © United Nations, 2003 All rights reserved Printed in Switzerland


IIA issues paper series

IIA Issues Paper Series
The main purpose of the UNCTAD Series on issues in international investment agreements – and other relevant instruments – is to address concepts and issues relevant to internationalinvestment agreements and to present them in a manner that is easily accessible to end-users. The series covers the following topics: Admission and establishment Competition Dispute settlement: investor-State Dispute settlement: State-State Employment Environment Fair and equitable treatment Foreign direct investment and development Home country measures Host country operational measures Illicit paymentsIncentives International investment agreements: flexibility for development Investment-related trade measures Lessons from the MAI Most-favoured-nation treatment National treatment Scope and definition Social responsibility State contracts Taking of property Taxation Transfer of funds Transfer of technology Transfer pricing Transparency Trends in international investment agreements: an overview...
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