Maritime and MultimodalTransportation |
Professors :P.Kolář |
Academic year 2010-2011 |
The Strait of Gibraltar
1.1)Evolution of intermodalism and logistics
2.The Srait of Gibraltar
2.1.1) East-West link
2.2.2) North South link
2.2) Hydrography and anemometry ofthe Strait
2.2.1) The wind
2.2.2)The flow of water
2.3) Stakes of the Strait of Gibraltar
2.3.1) Geopolitical stakes
2.3.2) Maritime and port stakes
2.3.3) Strategical stakes and the UK
3.The port of Gibraltar
3.2) Registering ships in Gibralatar
3.2.1) The Gibraltar Register
3.2.2) The Registry3.2.3) Registrable Ships
3.2.6) Rebilling process to avoid tax
4.Conclusion and future objectives
4.1) Rail tunnel project
The Strait of Gibraltar has become a East-West way that cannot be ignored as far as maritime transportation and international business are concerned. It is mainly used for trade and coastalactivities. It is also an important strategic place for goods and people flow between Europe and Africa. Nowadays, the Strait of Gibraltar and its ports enter into restructuration and a lot of new project are developped in order to improve its strategic position.
1. Introduction :
Intermodalism is at the basis of the success of maritime transportation and permits it to evolve through a realintegrated supply chain management. But, as for every living species on Earth, evolutions have to be carried out step by step. Therefore, to understand the implications of the final result, it is important to analyze each improvement. That‘s why, it can be useful to expose the different stages of maritime transportation evolution.
1.1) Evolution of intermodalism and logistics :Intermodalism is at the basis of the success of maritime transportation and permits it to evolve through a real integrated supply chain management. But, as for every living species on Earth, evolutions have to be carried out step by step. Therefore, to understand the implications of the final result, it is important to analyze each improvement. That‘s why, it can be useful to expose the different stages ofmaritime transportation evolution.
Before all the modes of transportation saw the others as competitors and were viewed with mistrust. Carriers try to secure their business trying to maximize the line-haul under their control. So, the competition pushed the transport system to be segmented and un-integrated. The lack of integration was also accentuated by public policy that has frequently barredcompanies from owning firms in other modes as in USA before deregulation, or in Europe where csome companies were made public. Moreover, the trend was for modalism because of the costs that are added when you must transfer the goods from one mode to another, which generate more terminal costs and delays.
Intermodalism emerged first in maritime transportation with the apparition of container in thelate 1960’s which spread to other modes. It is not surprising because maritime transportation was the mode of transport which was the most constraint by the time taken to load and unload the vessels. Indeed, a ship could have spent as much time in the port as it could have at sea. Containerization permits the mechanized handling of cargos of different size by using standardized containers andreduces considerably the time of loading and unloading the goods from a ship. It could have taken days before and now with containerization it can be handled in a matter of minutes.
Since the 1960’s major efforts have been done in order to integrate the different modes of transportation through intermodalism, which took place in several stages. Initially, the improvement was based on improving the...