Creationism today in the United States
Creationism: The literal belief in the account of Creation given in the Book of Genesis; "creationism denies the theory of evolution of species"
Thebeginnings of modern creationism
In the United States some religious communities have refused to accept, as theistic evolutionists have accepted, naturalistic explanations and tried instead to counterthem. The term started to become associated with Christian fundamentalist opposition to human evolution and belief in a young Earth in 1929. Several U.S. states passed laws against the teaching ofevolution in public schools. Evolution was omitted entirely from school textbooks in much of the United States until the 1960s. After World War I, popular belief that German aggression resulted from aDarwinian doctrine of "survival of the fittest" inspired William Jennings Bryan to campaign against the teaching of Darwinian ideas of human evolution. In the 1920s, the Fundamentalist-ModernistControversy led to an upsurge of fundamentalist religious fervor in which schools were prevented from teaching evolution through state laws such as Tennessee’s 1925 Butler Act, and by getting evolutionremoved from biology textbooks nationwide. Creationism became associated in common usage with opposition to evolution.
The 1968 Epperson v. Arkansas judgment ruled that state laws prohibiting theteaching of evolution violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution which prohibits state aid to religion. and when in 1975 Daniel v. Waters ruled that a state lawrequiring biology textbooks discussing "origins or creation of man and his world" to give equal treatment to creation as per Book of Genesis was unconstitutional, a new group identifying themselvesas creationists promoted a "Creation science" which omitted explicit biblical references. In 1981 the state of Arkansas passed a law, Act 590, mandating that "creation science" be given equal time...
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