Darkness to night
One of the characteristics of the middle age is the lack of interest in education. Indeed, the Roman Catholic Church thanks to centuries of preaching answered all the great philosophical questions, such as the meaning of life and death. The rise of the Universities in Western is a critical factor of the waning of the medieval society. When at first education exclusively for clergymen, it was now available to everybody. Thos universities taught all the basic disciplines with the Trivium and the Quadrivium. Since they were open to everybody, European from many regions traveled to attend Universities. For instance, in Life of a Student at Paris, Jacques de Vitry is enumerating all the different ethnic group attending courses at Paris: “English”, ‘son of France”, “Sicilians” (Reader2.p.84) … This is relevant because before this traveling wasn’t extended since it was very risky. Also, it developed a new urban way of life, since student were living in cities.
The true heart of the 12th century renaissance is the rebirth of critical thinking. Undeniably, Peter of Abelard a French scholar who was teaching among others in Paris, upset other views and opinion by book; the SIC et NON (Reader2.p.101). By encouraging people to be curious, and to question the church and their interpretations of the bible, he changed the way the intellectual community was thinking. P. Abelard also brought to light the divergences and the contradiction between the clergy, which contributed to undermine its authority. With this kind of powerful statements: “It is by doubting that we come to investigate, and by investigating that we recognize the truth.”, P. Abelard spread the seeds of other interpretation of the Bible, an interpretation that was challenging the Roman Church and the Canons laws.
The principal political and structural aspect of the Middle Ages was the power of the Papacy. The Pontifical was the central power ruling over all Western Europe. One issue