Fiche de lecture classe européenne

Pages: 5 (1115 mots) Publié le: 1 janvier 2011
DOCUMENT 1
1) Describe the graphs . What is the trend ?
Today a minority of farmers or agricultural workers is managing a majority of space. The agricultural population is still decreasing.

DOCUMENT 2
1) What do all these Anglo-Saxon countries have in common ?
All these Anglo-Saxon countries are self-sufficient in nutritional terms. We can see it in the “Caloric supply per capita per day2002” which is quite the same and high for the five (between 3.054 for the lowest and 3780 for the highest).
It describes the availability of food ; the access of consumers to affordable, nutritional and safe food.

2) Is food security guaranteed in these countries ?
What is food security ?
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), food security existswhen all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

No it is not guaranteed. The sustenance of its people is a basic objective of any nation. But no food supply system can ever be totally secure. It is dependent of the climate, the economical and politicalenvironment, diseases for animals. It’s hard to predict the future. The powerful agriculture has got limits due to its internal and external dependence.

3) What could threaten it ?

The threats are :
- Potential impacts of climate change on global food potential : higher temperature could lead to an increased number of generations per year which allows time for resistance build up and warmer winterscould improve survival in resistant pest populations
- Diseases : for example blue tongue stuck disease with another disease (one that struck wheat for example) the combined effects could be disastrous (consequence of biochemical industry)
- The environmental effects of trends in global food production and distribution (it relies on the use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides,insecticides, plant growth regulators, pesticides). It is killing the bees and the pollenisation will disappear
- The resilience of domestic and international trading infrastructure

DOCUMENT 3

1) Compare these two landscapes
These two pictures are reflecting the past and the present :
- In the past, we had a very diverse landscape mosaic created by agriculture (enclosure system due to animportant individualist meaning), river systems, woodlands and trees.
- Today, the total superficies of the arable lands have increased (especially for cereals, oleaginous plant, corn grains, barley, soja). We can observe a standardization of the soil.

2) Which agricultural methods visibly used on the photos account for the achievements of these countries ?
The first picture is reflecting anintensive agriculture (certainly a monoculture system) where the impact of the mechanisation of agriculture is visible.
In the second picture, it’s clearly visible that we are speaking of traditional diversified cultures – polyculture, breading (cereals, hay, pasturage).The land superficies are smallest than those of intensive agriculture.

3) How would you qualify this type of agriculture ?Traditional agriculture and powerful agriculture

DOCUMENT 4

1) Describe the cartoon
Cows demonstrate against the way they are feeding and tell the “whole world of consumers” to eat healthy instead of what they are eating today : “eat organic beef” “fruit and veggies” “TOFU”
The man is terrified and speak of an “outbreak” named “smart cow disease”.

2) What major agricultural crisis doesthis cartoon refer to ?
It refers to the epizootic disease (such as foot-and-mouth epizootic which led to the slaughtering of 6.5 million animals in 2001), due to contaminated animal feeds, that hit British animal Husbandry such as BSE and its human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and to the damages caused by intensive farming system for air, soil and water and its consequence for the food...
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