Definition: the diverse coalitions of American
citizens who seek to influence the foreign policy of the US in support of Israel. « Jewish » ones. heterogeneity.
We should talk about Israel lobbies and not
Israel lobbies are characterized by their
AIPAC seems to concentrate all the power.
I) A short history of Israel lobbies.
II) Focus on two lobbies : A) AIPAC. B) J-Street, the emerging Israel lobby III) Israel lobbies and current events.
I. A short history of Israel lobbies in the United States
1967 : consolidation of the relations between Israel
and the United States
1974 : Yasser Arafat’s move for an Israel-palestinian
peace agreement Mobilisation of Israel lobbies against it.
Carter’s presidency: eviction of the AIPAC and of the
Reagan’s presidency : growing momentum of the AIPAC
1984-1988 : Period of the « National Union ». Jewish lobbies as the Likoud’s Spokemen
1991 : George Bush takes a stand against the power of Jewish
1993: Oslo Agreements. Support of the AIPAC. 2001 : Pro-Israeli position of George W. Bush’s administration
2008: Strategic turn in the interactions between Obama’s
administration, Israel and Israel Lobbies
Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat,
II. Focus on AIPAC and J-Street (1)
A) AIPAC 1) Short history -
Founded in 1951 by Isaïe L. Kenen. 1967: the Six-Day War is a key moment for the relations between the US and Israel. A conservative organization. Ability of AIPAC to claim that it is speaking for the entire American Jewish community.
II. Focus on AIPAC and J-Street (2)
Traditional but effictive strategies. Influence on Congressmen through the financing of their electoral campaigns. Expertise. Influence on the executive branch thanks to the « Jewish vote ». Influence on the media.
The influence of AIPAC on the Congress
B. J Street,