Commandée par Mme Truus Schröder-Schräder et conçue par l'architecte Gerrit Thomas Rietveld, cette maison d'Utrecht fut construite en 1924. Cette petite demeure familiale, avec son intérieur, son organisation spatiale flexible et ses qualités visuelles et formelles, était un manifeste des idéaux des artistes et architectes néerlandais appartenant au groupe De Stijl au coursdes années vingt. Elle est désormais reconnue comme l'une des icônes du mouvement moderne dans l'architecture.
Critère i La maison Schröder de Rietveld, à Utrecht, est une icône du mouvement moderne en architecture et une expression exceptionnelle du génie créateur humain dans la pureté des idées et des concepts qui la sous-tendent, tels que développés par lemouvement De Stijl. Critère ii Avec son approche radicale du design et de l’utilisation de l’espace, la Rietveld Schröderhuis occupe une position prédominante dans le développement de l’architecture contemporaine. Critère vi La Rietveld Schröderhuis est un manifeste des idées et des concepts du Stijl, un des mouvements modernes les plus influents de l’art et de l’architecture.
Description longue[Uniquement en anglais]
With its radical approach to design and the use of space, the Rietveld is an icon of the Modern Movement in architecture and an outstanding expression of human creative genius in its purity of ideas and concepts as developed by the De Stijl movement. It occupies a seminal position in the development of architecture in the modern age.
It was commissioned by Mrs TruusSchröder-Schräder, designed by the architect Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1965), and built in 1924. Mrs Schröder lived in the house for some 60 years, first with her children, then in the company of Rietveld, and finally alone. In the early years, until 1932, Rietveld kept a studio in the house; from 1958, after his wife died, he came to live there until his death. During this long period some changes weremade in the interior, resulting partly from the needs of the inhabitants, partly from the experimental character of the building itself. The building is now a museum.
The Rietveld Schröder House is the manifesto of the De Stijl, an influential group of artists and architects who took their name from a periodical founded in 1917. The periodical was devoted to modern neo-Plasticism, and it becamethe most influential voice for the ideals of modern art and architecture in the Netherlands. It invited contributions from the foremost artists of the time.
After the destruction wrought in the First World War, members of the group sought for the universal, as the individual was losing its significance. Abstraction, precision, geometry, striving towards artistic purity and austerity, studying thelaws of nature to arrive at what really is, determined the thoughts and creations of De Stijl. The members of the group first expressed their ideas mainly in paintings, then in furniture and architecture. The Schröder House was the first declaration of these ideas on a large scale, thus becoming the architectural manifestation of the group. The range of ideas generated by the group reachedGermany, influencing the establishment of the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1919.
The Schröder House was built on the edge of the city of Utrecht close to the countryside, at the end of a 19th-century row of houses. The design and building of the house took place simultaneously. The few existing drawings and the scale model show that the design evolved from a fairly close block to an open transparent compositionof evenly matched spaces composed of independent planes. Much of the design was determined on the construction site, as were the colours. The building was conceived as a manifesto from the beginning; Mrs Schröder and Rietveld commissioned a full photographic documentation of the architecture. Their intention was to make sure the new approach to architecture and living were presented to reflect...
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